Keep in mind that most snakes in Virginia, even if they’re venomous, are not aggressive. The chances that you’ll be able to spot the 8 black snakes in Virginia on our list in the wild are slim. A snake’s purpose is to remain unseen while it hunts or relaxes.
If you’re dealing with a snake in your yard that’s taken up residence in an unwanted place, try to hire a professional to relocate the animal. Killing it removes a vital apex predator from the immediate habitat. You call this habitat your property.
In fact, it’s illegal in Virginia to kill a snake unless it’s a threat to livestock or a person. You can be fined up to $1,000 or receive 6 months of jail time if you’re caught killing snakes.
Yet, we understand that seeing a black snake can cause concern, especially if it’s in your yard. In this guide, we’ll detail 8 black snakes you could encounter in Virginia. For each, we’ll provide a picture and detail whether or not they present immediate danger or are venomous. Let’s dive in!
8 Black Snakes in Virginia
These are 8 of the black snakes in Virginia:
- Black Rat Snake
- Northern Cottonmouth
- Eastern Black Kingsnake
- Rainbow Snake
- Northern Black Racer
- Eastern Garter Snake
- Timber Rattlesnake
- Plain-Bellied Water Snake
1. Black Rat Snake: The Longest Snake in Virginia
The black rat snake is also known as the eastern rat snake. It grows up to 6 feet long and is the only snake in Virginia that reaches the 6-foot mark.
Their body is black while their ventral side is checkered black and white. Their chin is all white. Almost all the black rat snakes in Virginia will have a uniform appearance without much variation between individuals.
There is one exception to the rule in the southeastern corner of the state. There, the black rat snake may have 4 long black stripes on its back against a grey body.
They like to hang out on the ground and in trees. They’re adaptable to a variety of habitats.
Rat snakes are found in forested wetlands, forested urban areas, and agricultural areas. They like hunt rats in old buildings.
Black rat snakes also enjoy nestling birds and eggs. They will eat an adult if given the chance as well. They don’t have a favorite bird species, though they go for what’s small enough for them to handle.
2. Northern Cottonmouth: A Venomous Snake in Virginia
Cottonmouths in Virginia are only in the streams and swamps of the far south of the state. They’re called cottonmouths because of the characteristic white interior of their mouths which they show when threatened.
Some cottonmouths have a lighter appearance with blotches, but some are so dark they look almost completely black.
When a cottonmouth is swimming, most of its body is out of the water. It’s also called a water moccasin because of its mostly aquatic lifestyle.
They like to hang out near rivers, streams, ponds, prairies, dunes, forests, swamps, and marshes. They’re highly venomous pit vipers so if you think there’s a cottonmouth in your midst, take extreme caution and vacate the situation.
3. Eastern Black Kingsnake in Virginia
This snake is mostly black, but it does have white rings at various points on its body. Kingsnakes eat venomous snakes like rattlesnakes and copperheads. It is called a chain snake by some because the circle patterns remind some of a chain-link fence.
They’re constrictors that like to eat rodents, birds, and lizards. They’ll also make a meal of turtle and bird eggs. They can tolerate the venom of other venomous snakes in their territory.
They hang out on land, and they vibrate their tail in ground detritus when threatened to mimic a rattlesnake. This is in the hopes that the threat will get scared and retreat.
4. Rainbow Snake in Virginia
Found in the coastal plain, this snake is iridescent with stripes running down the length of its body. Having a black body is most common though some individuals are lighter. Rainbow snakes are relatively nonaggressive and will freeze and release a musk as their first line of defense.
They love the water and spend their time in swamps, mud beds, creeks, and marshes. If you aren’t near water, you’re not looking at a rainbow snake. They’re not easily spotted since they’re nocturnal.
They like to dine on earthworms and tadpoles.
5. Northern Black Racer in Virginia
This is a thin and long snake with a shiny sheen. While they’re nonvenomous, they are aggressive so no attempt should be made to handle them in the wild. They are fast, which is why they’re called racers.
In Virginia, they like to hang out in oil fields, grasslands, and sandpits.
6. Eastern Garter Snake: The State Snake of Virginia
While not entirely black as they have yellow stripes down the length of their bodies, garter snakes are predominantly black. They are also the state snake of Virginia. They’re ubiquitous and live almost anywhere.
At a little over 2 feet in length, this snake is totally harmless. They’re easy to handle, and even if they do bite, it barely hurts and does no damage.
They’re terrestrial and make a meal out of spiders, small fish, toads, and earthworms.
7. Timber Rattlesnake: A Venomous Snake in Virginia
While most timber rattlesnakes exhibit patterning, some individuals are all black. Like all rattlesnakes, the timber rattler has a rattle on the end of its tail.
Timber rattlesnakes like forests, rocky areas, and flatlands. They prefer to chow down on small mammals which they lie in wait for so they can ambush.
They’re highly venomous, and when hunting, they strike their prey and let their venom take effect before dining. If struck by a timber rattlesnake it’s extremely important to seek medical attention as their venom can pose serious harm.
8. Plain-Bellied Water Snake in Virginia
This snake likes to hang out near rivers, wetlands, ponds, floodplains, and lakes. Compared to other water snakes in Virginia, Plain-bellied water snakes tend to hang out on land a lot longer than their counterparts. On humid and hot days, they can be found away from water.
Not all individuals are black. Some are olive, brown, gray, or a shade somewhere in between. There are enough of them that are black that they still deserve their place on our list of 8 black snakes in Virginia.
Plain-bellied water snakes eat both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these animals are frogs, fish, crayfish, and salamanders. While other water snakes chase their prey, these water snakes like to wait in ambush.
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