Black and White American Flag: History, Meaning, and Symbolism

Written by Sanaphay Rattanavong
Updated: November 15, 2023
Share on:


What can a simple piece of cloth bearing a distinct design convey about the identity, aspirations, and conflicts of a nation? Flags are powerful symbols that can either unite people under a common cause or polarize them into opposing camps. They distill complex ideas into geometric shorthand built of colors, patterns, and icons. These designs in and of themselves mean almost nothing but can elicit strong emotional responses.

Modern black and white flags in America can represent political engagement, cultural expression, advertising and branding, or even military units.

One such emblematic flag that has stirred strong reactions over the years is the black and white American flag. Originating during the turbulent period of the American Civil War as an antithesis to the white flag of surrender, it has transformed into a complex symbol. Various organizations, activists, and communities have reinterpreted its symbolism to suit their own narratives. These uses range from being an emblem of unity and racial equality to serving as an homage to public safety officials.

Here, we unfurl the rich history of the black and white American flag, from its contentious origins during the Civil War to its many variations. We’ll also explore how its usage has morphed in the face of modern-day social and political dynamics. Furthermore, we will compare it with a similar one from the Brittany region of France, the Gwenn-ha-du. Join us in this American and global exploration on how such emblems function as carriers of local, national, and international identities.

1,930 People Couldn't Ace This Quiz

Think You Can?
Vintage American Stamp 1963, Ephemera.

Though it happened over 150 years ago, the divisions and reverberations from the American Civil War still inform how the nation interprets its current challenges.

©&#169 Marisa Allegra Williams/iStock via Getty Images

Origins of the Black and White American Flag

The America Civil War

The turbulent years of the American Civil War (1861 to 1865) were a crucible not just for the nation but also for the symbols that reflected its divided identity. Flags played an important role throughout this time, symbolizing both togetherness and division. The black and white American flag arose as a dramatic contrast to the white one, a universal symbol of surrender and truce. The Confederate soldiers used the black flag to indicate their determination to fight until the bitter end, sending the message that they refuse to even consider surrender. This black flag was both a declaration of perseverance and a terrible ultimatum in the face of life and death.

Despite exhaustive research and scholarly discussions, a consensus on the original intent behind the black and white American flag remains elusive. As do people do with symbols in general, some scholars interpret it as a symbol of hope and unity. Others posit that it was conceived as a counterpoint to the all-white flag of surrender. Thus, it served the same function as the all-black flag.

But perhaps both views are correct. Yes, its original meaning, like the Civil War itself, is a contested subject. There are various competing interpretations, ideological nuances, and cultural contexts. But what’s indisputable is its evolution into a symbol potent enough to provoke, polarize, or unify communities in modern America.

USA flag, hand-drawn with a pencil. Black and grey inverted dark background, wallpaper or backdrop. Handmade Stars and Stripes. American Independence Day and Flag Day

The US Flag Code adopted by Congress in 1942 and subsequently struck down in 1989 by the US Supreme Court proscribed the display, use, and modification of the US flag. While no longer enforced by law, the Code is still adhered to as a matter of etiquette and tradition.

©Deacons docs/

The Evolution of the Black and White American Flag’s Meaning

A Transformative Symbol

Time has a way of altering the meanings attached to symbols. And the black and white American flag is no exception. Once emblematic of a Confederate willingness to engage in relentless combat, it has undergone a metamorphosis. It has reemerged in the 21st century as a symbol laden with various significance. Far from its wartime origins, it has become an increasingly versatile symbol, sometimes even employed as an emblem of hope, unity, and social justice. This evolution speaks to the fluid nature of symbols and the complexities of cultural reinterpretation.

Modern Resurgence of the Black and White American Flag

In recent years, the black and white American flag has gained traction in a variety of social and political contexts. The flag vividly paints modern struggles on its canvas, often featuring an additional non-black-and-white stripe. We look at some of the more significant uses in the following.

Variations and What They Signify

Thin Blue Line Variation

One of the most recognizable variations of the black and white American flag is the Thin Blue Line Flag. A solitary blue stripe runs horizontally across the flag’s black and white backdrop. This serves as a visual metaphor for law enforcement officers standing between chaos and order. Many embrace this flag as a symbol of respect and support for the police. But it also ignites controversies, particularly when it appears at protests debating law enforcement’s role.

It’s also worth noting that such flags as the Confederate battle flag had all but disappeared from American political life. That is, until the Civil Rights Movement. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) notably used the black and white “A man was lynched yesterday” flag during the period between the World Wars. The flags attempted to bring attention to the prevalence of lynching of black people since the end of the Civil War. Like the Confederate battle flag, a version of the NAACP lynching flag emerged in 2015 after the death of a black man, Walter Scott, at the hands of police. The flag’s text: “A man was lynched by police yesterday.”

Red Stripe Variation

Less controversial is another iteration that features a single red stripe. People commonly interpret this flag as a show of support for fire departments, often viewing the red stripe as a symbol of the valor and sacrifice firefighters exhibit in the line of duty. While clearly modeled after the thin blue line flag, it sparks far less controversy than its police counterpart.

Yellow Stripe Variation

Less ubiquitous but no less meaningful is the flag variation that sports a yellow stripe. People generally associate this version with honoring those in public safety sectors, like dispatchers or security officers. The yellow stripe pays homage to these vital but often underappreciated roles in the tapestry of community welfare and security.

Green Stripe Variation

Finally, a green-striped version exists, mainly viewed as a symbol supporting federal law enforcement agencies. These include the Border Patrol, Park Rangers, and various divisions within the Department of Homeland Security. The green stripe serves as a nod to the expansive and multifaceted realm of federal law enforcement.

It is important to note that while these variations have popular interpretations, the meaning of a flag can significantly differ depending on the observer’s perspective, experiences, and biases. For instance, protesters will likely see the display of a thin blue line flag at protests against police brutality as a slap in the face. Symbols aren’t static. They interact with the social and cultural climates in which they appear, allowing for a broad range of interpretations.

Support the Police Thin Blue Line American Flag on the mast

The interpretation of “the thin blue line” often bifurcates: it bears racist undertones for some, while denoting group solidarity for others.

©Creative Photo Corner/

Flags in the Modern World: A Comparative Look

In an era shaped by globalization, we can’t overstate the role of a flag as a marker of national identity. They drape over Olympic podiums, fly atop government buildings, and even adorn our favorite emojis. They become a shorthand for the values, history, and ambitions of a nation. Further, they often elicite a visceral reaction from citizens and foreigners alike.

As with other such emblems, they also serve as powerful tools for conveying complex ideas through simple design. A single glance at the shapes and colors can evoke a range of emotions, from the solidarity the rainbow flag symbolizes to the historical struggles the South African one encapsulates. The elements in the design, colors, shapes, emblems, all speak in silent significance.

But then there’s the problem of interpretation. Even the name for the study of flags itself, known as vexillology, is under dispute. So, it’s best to keep in mind the shifting nuances of interpretation, context, perspective, and other such factors.

Political Engagement

Today, people frequently hoist flags high at protests, rallies, and demonstrations. They serve to unify people under a common cause, such as the Black Lives Matter flag or various eco-activism ones. In this context, a flag turns into an emblem of a movement, a visual rallying cry.

Cultural Expression

Flags can also serve as a canvas for cultural expression. Consider indigenous flags, regional flags, the rainbow Pride flag, and even fictional flags from popular culture such as the House Stark Banner and the Wakanda Flag. These flags give communities a sense of belonging and identity, separate from the boundaries of nations and politics.

Advertising and Branding

Beyond politics and identity, flags have found a home in the world of commerce. Companies and brands frequently utilize flag-like symbols to market products or services. The psychology is straightforward: if a flag can elicit a sense of belonging or evoke positive emotions, why can’t a brand do the same?

Military Units

In the theater of war, flags have practical purposes. They identify factions, direct troops, and serve as rallying points. This use goes back to some of the earliest ways of using flags in human history, underscoring their enduring importance in organized conflict. Further, we see their use in organized sports (a controlled and non-death-oriented form of conflict), especially in non-American football.

Context Matters

The symbolism of a flag can be both fluid and context-dependent. What is a mark of pride for one group may be a painful reminder for another. For example, the Confederate flag is a symbol of Southern heritage for some but represents a history of racial oppression for others.

Flag of Brittany

The Gwenn-ha-du, which translates to “black and white” in Breton.

©Gwengoat/iStock via Getty Images

Case Study: The Black and White Flag of Brittany

Across the Atlantic, another black-and-white flag captures the hearts and minds of its people: the Gwenn-ha-du, the flag of Brittany, a region in northwest France. Its name translates to “white and black” in Breton, a Celtic language still spoken in the region. Dating back to the 1920s, the Gwenn-ha-du features 11 black and white stripes, which represent the traditional dioceses of Brittany. Its upper corner showcases 11 ermine spots, a heraldic emblem historically tied to the Duchy of Brittany. Interestingly, the American flag partly inspired the Gwenn-ha-du’s design, as both flags are considered symbols of freedom and self-determination.

Comparing and Contrasting with the American Black and White Flag

Both flags use the striking contrast of black and white. Yet, they resonate differently within their respective cultures. In the United States, the black and white flag evolved from a Confederate battle symbol to one of modern-day unity and discord. On the contrary, Gwenn-ha-du primarily serves as an emblem of regional identity, although it has gained a broader appeal as a symbol of cultural pride and autonomy.

The black and white American flag’s ever-evolving meanings make it a contentious yet potentially uniting image. It’s a symbol whose interpretation varies widely depending on the context and can evolve to take on new ones.

Meanwhile, the Gwenn-ha-du is more universally understood within Brittany as a representation of the region’s distinct culture and history. While it doesn’t carry the same political weight as its American counterpart, it serves as a robust symbol of a community’s unique identity. However, both flags share a common underpinning: in one form or another, right or wrong, they have roots in struggles for self-determination.

The American black and white flag and Brittany’s Gwenn-ha-du illustrate how similar visual elements can unfold into entirely different narratives. Each is shaped by the cultural, historical, and even geopolitical contexts in which they are embedded. The duality of their black and white hues reminds us that symbolism is never monolithic. To be sure, it’s a living, breathing entity, ever-changing with the passage of time and shifts in perspective.

Memorial STadium NEbraska

In addition to waving flags, sports fans also take to adopting their team’s uniform colors…uniformly.

©CC BY 3.0 – License

The Psychological Power of Flags

These potent symbols capable of evoking a wide range of emotions, from pride and unity to anger and division. The psychology behind flags can be broken down into multiple facets:

Symbolic Involvement

Flags act as carriers of messages, capturing the essence of nations, movements, or causes. They can become rallying points that help consolidate a collective identity.

Identity Expression

People often use flags to express their affiliation, be it with a nation, a group, or a cause. In this way, flags serve as a form of identity shorthand, telling you something about the person who waves it or displays it on their front porch.

Political Engagement

They can mobilize people for political action. In times of protest or celebration, they serve as universal symbols that communicate complex ideas quickly and effectively.

Psychosocial Effect

Psychologically, the mere act of standing behind a flag can create a sense of belonging, enhancing our social connections and sometimes even our self-esteem.

Emotional Connection

Flags can also be emotionally charged. They can symbolize sacrifice, commemorate historical events, or represent hopes for the future. An example of this is found in the POW MIA flags and their impact on war veterans.

Historical Significance

The history behind a flag can amplify its emotional impact. Understanding the story of a flag can deepen our connection to it, adding layers of meaning that go beyond its visual elements. For example, the state flag of Minnesota is undergoing redesign due to its problematic depiction of Native Americans.

flag of Minnesota

The problematic symbolism and busy design of the Minnesota state flag is currently in process of being redesigned.



The black and white American flag is a study in contrasts. What began as a divisive symbol during the Civil War has metamorphosed over the years, acquiring layers of meaning that range from hope and unity to social justice to its opposite. Yet, it is precisely this complexity that renders it a living, breathing emblem, adaptable yet rooted.

What’s truly captivates is its dual capacity to both unite and divide. Whether featuring a thin blue line or flown in its monochrome form, the flag uniquely speaks to disparate groups. It can be a banner of hope for some while evoking disquiet or anger in others. This dichotomy serves as a microcosm of a society grappling with its own evolving values, tensions, and aspirations.

As we navigate the ever complex and global world of the 21st century, the role of such symbols become increasingly crucial. They serve as anchors in a world awash with change, yet their meanings are anything but static. In a way, the black and white American flag embodies this paradox: it is both a constant and a variable, a symbol that challenges us to reflect on our own values, perceptions, and contradictions.

In a world where simplicity often unravels into tricky nuance and division continuously challenges unity, we perhaps should heighten our awareness of the messages our chosen symbols convey. We can do so by being more mindful of what they reveal about the complexities we face. Like the black and white threads woven into its fabric, this monochrome American emblem invites us to contemplate the intricacies of our shared human experience. All of it: the good, the bad, and the invisible.

Lady liberty.

The United States flag, along with the Statue of Liberty, are arguably the most recognizable symbols of freedom and self-determination in modern times.

©mj0007/iStock via Getty Images

Variations on the Black and White

Flag Variation / Color LineSymbolismRepresents
Black and White American Flag American Civil War (1861-1865)Continued fighting to the endGeneral Valor
With Red Stripe“Red life matters,” protection of lives during firesFire Department
With Yellow StripePublic safety protectionPolice dispatchers, firefighters, ambulance dispatchers, Security Force, Loss Prevention Association, Search and Rescue Officers
With Green StripeSupport for federal law enforcementBorder patrol, park rangers, conservation personnel
Thin Red Line FlagFirefighter supportFirefighters
Orange LinePublic safetySearch and rescue personnel
White LineEmergency workersParamedics and EMS workers
Pink LineHealthcare workersNurses and healthcare workers
Black and white flag variation summary table.

The black and white American flag and its various adaptations serve as not just fabrics of cotton or polyester, but as fabrics of society and culture. They encapsulate the complexities and the diversities of roles that individuals play in the United States, from historical bravery to modern public safety. Whether a stripe of color is added to honor the firefighters who rush into burning buildings or the green line that nods to our federal law enforcement, these variations are silent yet profound statements of American values and responsibilities. And depending on their contexts and interpretations, they can also be points of tension, division, and discord.

The photo featured at the top of this post is © sureshsharma/iStock via Getty Images

Share on:
About the Author

Embracing the interplay between the arts, nature, and technology, Sanaphay Rattanavong sculpts narratives through both data and human/animal-focused lenses at A-Z Animals, primarily in the realms of weather, culture, cleantech, and climate resilience. His specializations also include creativity and animal intelligence. And cats. He holds an MFA in Creative Writing from Bennington College and has labored for more than 10 years in the trenches of journalistic, blog, magazine, and fiction writing. An outdoor enthusiast who also enjoys the finer things in culture, Sanaphay resides in Minneapolis, Minnesota, with stints in Toronto, Ontario.

Thank you for reading! Have some feedback for us? Contact the AZ Animals editorial team.