Discover the Small U.S. Town That Got 61-Feet of Rain in a Single Year

Written by Shreya Agrawal
Published: September 23, 2023
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In the heart of the Hawaiian archipelago lies Pu’u Kukui on Maui Island. It is one of the rainiest towns in the United States. It is an astonishing place where the clouds seem to part and rain down almost every day, giving the place a staggering 61 feet of rain in a single year.

Location of Pu’u Kukui

Pu’u Kukui lies on the northwest side of Maui, Hawaii, making it a part of the Hawaiian Islands. These islands are collectively a tropical paradise in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. This particular location lies at an elevation of approximately 5,788 feet (1,764 meters) above sea level, making it one of the highest points on the island. Its strategic location on the slopes of the West Maui Mountains gives it a breathtaking vantage point overlooking the Maui Channel. The Maui Channel is the water body that separates Maui from its neighboring island, Molokai.

Waihee Ridge Trail and view of Kahului and Haleakala, Hawaii

View from Waihee Ridge Trail, over looking Kahului and Haleakala, Maui, Hawaii

©7Michael/iStock via Getty Images

Geography of Pu’u Kukui

The geography of Pu’u Kukui plays an important role in its extreme rainfall patterns. The town lies within a massive, dormant volcanic caldera known as the Pu’u Kukui Watershed Preserve. This vast natural reserve covers approximately 8,661 acres and is a vital conservation area. It is home to lush rainforests with unique flora and fauna.

The rugged terrain of the West Maui Mountains, characterized by steep slopes and deep valleys, contributes to the town’s distinctive climate. The mountainous landscape acts as a barrier to moisture-laden trade winds coming from the northeast. When these moisture-laden winds encounter the mountains, they ascend. When they ascend, they cool rapidly, and come back to the land as rain. This phenomenon, also known as orographic lift, is responsible for the town’s record-breaking rainfall.

Weather Patterns in Pu’u Kukui

Pu’u Kukui has a tropical rainforest climate, known as an Af climate under the Köppen climate classification. This means it has a tropical climate with no dry season. And this is very much apparent. The town gets consistent rainfall throughout the year, with particularly heavy downpours during the winter months. This climatic pattern is the result of the combination of its geographical location and the influence of the Pacific High and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).

The Pacific High is a subtropical high-pressure system. It creates a stable environment that encourages trade winds from the northeast to blow through the region. These trade winds bring moisture-laden air masses from the ocean to Pu’u Kukui. When these air masses ascend the West Maui Mountains, they cool rapidly, becoming water vapor and, subsequently, creating heavy rainfall.

The ITCZ is a region near the equator where trade winds converge. Therefore, this enhances the moisture content of the air masses that reach Pu’u Kukui. During certain times of the year, the ITCZ shifts northward. Thus, this results in intensifying the trade winds and further increasing rainfall in the area.

In the shade of the 1873 old Banyan tree in Lahaina, Maui, U.S.A.

In the shade of the 1873 old Banyan tree in Lahaina, Maui. Lahaina is located in Pu’u Kukui in Maui.

©Barnes Ian/

Rain Records in Pu’u Kukui

Pu’u Kukui’s reputation as one of the rainiest towns in the United States is well-deserved. In the year 1982, this remarkable town received a staggering 739.5 inches of rainfall. This is equivalent to approximately 61.6 feet (18.8 meters) of rain in a single year. This earned Pu’u Kukui the record for the highest annual rainfall in the United States.

The consistent, heavy rainfall in Pu’u Kukui contributes to its lush vegetation. This includes pristine rainforests, vibrant ferns, moss-covered trees, and a rich diversity of plant life.

Why Does It Rain So Much in Pu’u Kukui?

Several factors converge to create the perfect conditions for the extreme rainfall in Pu’u Kukui. As mentioned earlier, the West Maui Mountains force ascending air masses to cool rapidly, leading to condensation and heavy rainfall. This orographic lift is a key driver of the town’s precipitation.

Pu’u Kukui is situated above the lower cloud base. This allows for consistent condensation and precipitation within its boundaries. The town’s location in the heart of the West Maui Mountains limits the escape of moist air masses, leading to a concentration of rainfall in the area. Additionally, the seasonal shift of the ITCZ amplifies the trade winds and increases the moisture content of the air masses. Thus, all of these factors further enhance rainfall.

Wildlife of Pu’u Kukui

Despite the relentless downpours, Pu’u Kukui has a rich and diverse array of wildlife. The lush rainforests and unique ecological niches support a wide range of species, each with its own adaptation to the wet conditions.

Avian Residents

Birdwatchers are in for a treat when visiting Pu’u Kukui. The town is home to several native bird species, many of which have evolved to thrive in the rain-soaked environment.

The ʻiʻiwi (Drepanis coccinea, pronounced /iːˈiːviː/, ee-EE-vee), or scarlet honeycreeper is a "hummingbird-niched" species of Hawaiian honeycreeper

The ʻiʻiwi or scarlet honeycreeper is a “hummingbird-niched” species of Hawaiian honeycreeper.

©Thomas Chlebecek/

Hawaiian Honeycreepers are these colorful birds, including the ‘I’iwi and ‘Apapane, have evolved specialized bills to feed on nectar from native Hawaiian flowers. Hawaiian Petrel, also known as the ‘Ua’u, nests in burrows in the mountains and forages at sea. It is well-adapted to the wet conditions of Pu’u Kukui. ‘Amakihi is this small, greenish-yellow bird is a common sight in the town’s rainforests, feeding on nectar, insects, and fruit.

Amphibians and Reptiles

Pu’u Kukui also provides an ideal habitat for various amphibians and reptiles, including Hawaiian Tree Frogs, who are known for their distinctive calls and are well-suited to the wet conditions of the rainforest. Jackson’s Chameleon are an introduced species. These chameleons are often spotted in the town’s forests. They are known for their ability to change color as well as their slow, deliberate movements.

Flora and Vegetation

Pu’u Kukui also supports a diverse range of plant life. Some of the unique flora and vegetation found in the area include ferns, mosses and lichens and native trees. The town’s rainforests have an array of fern species, including the native Hapu’u fern and the colorful bird’s nest fern. The consistent moisture levels provide an ideal environment for the growth of mosses and lichens, which can be found carpeting the forest floor and covering tree trunks. The rainforest is also dotted with native trees like ‘Ohi’a lehua and Koa, which have adapted to thrive in the wet conditions.

Hawaiian hibiscus, Hibiscus kokio flower

Hibiscus kokio, subspecies saintjohnianus or saint johnianus. The orange flower of the Hawaiian hibiscus plant, a rare shrub native to Kauai, Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii.

©Ward DeWitt/ via Getty Images

How Wildlife Survives in the Rain

Surviving in Pu’u Kukui requires remarkable adaptations. Wildlife in the area have developed various strategies to thrive despite the challenging environment. Many birds and insects have specialized diets, such as nectar-feeding or foraging for insects that thrive in wet conditions. Bird species have adapted their nesting habits to avoid flooding. Thus, they often choose elevated or well-protected locations.

Some animals have also developed waterproofing adaptations, such as oily feathers or water-shedding scales, to stay dry. Others, like the Hawaiian petrel, have adapted to forage at night when rainfall is typically less intense. Some species, like the Hawaiian hoary bat, also migrate to Pu’u Kukui during the wetter months and relocate to drier areas when needed. Amphibians in Pu’u Kukui often have specialized breeding behaviors and habitat choices that they use to cope with the rain-drenched environment. Native plants have also evolved several strategies such as water storage structures and waxy coatings on leaves to manage the constant moisture.

In essence, the wildlife of Pu’u Kukui has evolved over millennia to coexist with as well as take advantage of the heavy rainfall. All of these examples showcase the remarkable resilience of nature.

The photo featured at the top of this post is © EdoTealdi/iStock via Getty Images

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About the Author

Shreya is a climate scientist. She also studies paleontology and evolutionary biology. She enjoys reading all kinds of literature and listening to rock music in her free time.

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