- Coyotes are wild canines while foxes are within the genus Vulpes, encompassing fewer species.
- Various coloration patterns, body shapes, and sizes of foxes exist, while coyotes are generally uniform in appearance.
- Generally, coyotes are much larger and more muscular than foxes.
If you’ve ever caught a small glimpse of a wild canine roaming around your neighborhood, it is most likely a fox or, depending on where you live, a coyote. The coyote is a specific species of wild canine within the genus Canis; it is closely related to wolves, dogs, and jackals. The fox, on the other hand, is defined as any species within a few different genera, including Vulpes, Lycalopex, and Urocyon.
The coyote is fairly uniform in its shape and color, while the fox has a much greater degree of physical variability. These variations encompass everything from the all-white Arctic fox to the big-eared desert-dwelling Fennec fox. A sharp-eyed person should be able to distinguish a fox and a coyote fairly easily. You just have to know which features to look out for.
Comparing Fox vs Coyote
Here’s a quick breakdown of the main differences between the fox and the coyote.
|Length||1 to 3 ft (5 ft with tail included)||3 to 4.5 ft (more than 5 ft with tail included)|
|Weight||2 to 30 lbs. (1 to 14 kg)||15 to 50 lbs. (7 to 23 kg)|
|Color||Red, gray, brown, black, white, silver, etc.||Reddish-brown or gray|
|Body||Long body, short legs, and big ears relative to the size||Muscular body, shorter legs, and ears relative to the total size|
The 5 Key Differences between Foxes and Coyotes
How can a layman with no particular wildlife training tell the difference between a fox and a coyote? Location is generally the easiest way. If you’re living outside of North America, then you’re almost certainly dealing with a fox, because coyotes have a restricted range. But if you’re living inside of North America, then identification becomes a lot trickier. You can usually rely on these five basic physical characteristics or behaviors to tell the difference.
Fox vs Coyote: Body Size
On account of its wolf-like heritage, the coyote is, on average, much larger and more muscular than the fox. It usually exceeds 3 feet in length and 2 feet in height. Even the largest species of fox, the red fox, cannot quite measure up to the full size of an adult coyote. Its body is less than 3 feet in length and 20 inches in height. The fox also has much shorter legs and a more tube-shaped body. Many fox species aren’t much larger than your typical house cat, although the thick fur usually makes them appear larger than they really are.
Fox vs Coyote: Coat Color
The coyote usually comes in various shades of gray, interspersed with red around the flanks. The coat color of the fox, by contrast, always varies by species. The most common coat colors are red, gray, silver, and yellowish-brown. While you might be tempted to believe that the red fox is easy to identify by the rusty red coat color, you should keep in mind that this species also has several different color morphs, including gray, silver, and blackish-brown. The gray color morph of the red fox and the gray fox (a completely separate species from the red fox) are probably the easiest to accidentally mistake for the coyote.
Fox vs Coyote: Tail
The fox has a long, bushy tail, almost as long as the body itself. It is sometimes capped off with a white or black tip. You may notice that the tail has the tendency to hang in the air when the fox runs. The coyote has a shorter tail, relative to body size, and it tends to hang down when the coyote runs. It’s also not quite as bushy as the fox tail.
Fox vs Coyote: Living Arrangements and Social Behavior
The coyote, while not quite as social and gregarious as the wolf, is also a pack animal that lives together with several other family members and even sometimes non-family members. Mating season is the only time the coyote will voluntarily use a den. Otherwise, they sleep and rest above ground. The fox, by contrast, is a solitary animal outside of the breeding season, sometimes sharing its territory with other members of its immediate family. It lives in a den or burrow with a tunnel network and defined chambers.
Fox vs Coyote: Vocalizations
Coyotes are among the most vocal of all wild canines in the world. They can be identified by their long, plaintive, wolf-like howls, rising and falling in pitch, sometimes interspersed with yips, yelps, and barks. The fox, by contrast, does make some howling noises, but it’s most easily identified by the high-pitched whining or yelping sound. They sound very little like a wolf or dog.
Jackals: Fox/Coyote Offspring?
If you’ve ever seen a jackal or even a picture of one, you know that these animals look exactly like a coyote and a fox had offspring. However, jackals are not the product of these two animals mating and are different than either a fox or coyote. In the canine family, jackals are closely related to coyotes. While coyotes live in North and Central America, jackals make their home throughout the Old World.
Summary: Fox vs Coyote
|Body Size||3 ft long|
20 in high
Short legs, tube-shaped body
|3 ft long|
2 ft high
Dog-like, long legs
|Coat Color||Red, gray, white, silver, yellow-brown||Various grays, some red on hind legs|
|Tail||Long, bushy tail|
Trails behind as fox runs
Hangs when coyote runs
|Behavior||Solitary except breeding season|
May share territory with immediate family
Dens/burrows to live
|Pack animals with family and non-family|
Dens when mating
|Vocalizations||Howls, whines, yelps||Various|
Coyotes and foxes do look similar and can be found in the same place, along with other confusing animals. Check out these articles to help distinguish similar canines from comparable mammals:
- Jackal vs Fox: What are their differences? – Jackals are similar to coyotes, meaning these canines and foxes have key differences.
- Jackal vs Coyote: Key Differences & Who Would Win in a Fight? – These two are tricky to tell apart but it is possible.
- Catahoula Leopard Dog vs Coyote: What’s the Difference? – Coyotes are often mistaken for stray dogs roaming the neighborhood but here’s how to decide that they’re not.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
How do you tell the difference between a fox vs. a coyote?
The easiest way to identify them is their size and body shape. The coyote has a much larger size, longer legs, a more muscular body, and a thinner tail. The fox, by contrast, has shorter legs, a smaller body, and a bushy tail. It also exhibits a much wider range of coat colors, including white, silver, gray, yellowish-brown, and a strong orange-red coat. In terms of their behavior, foxes are more solitary. They tend to live in dens more often and make a high-pitched yipping sound. Finally, if all else fails, location is a good indicator. Coyotes do not live outside of North America.
Which is heavier, a fox or a coyote?
The coyote is much heavier than the fox. The typical coyote weighs up to 50 pounds. The heaviest ever known specimen weighed some 75 pounds. By contrast, most foxes weigh between 10 to 20 pounds. The heaviest fox ever known was about 38 pounds.
How do you tell apart fox poop vs. coyote poop?
Coyote poop is generally large, smooth, and may taper at one end. It can also contain small bone fragments or hairs of larger prey.
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