The Flag of Cote d’Ivoire: History, Meaning, and Symbolism

Written by Alan Lemus
Published: November 21, 2022
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We often take for granted the meaning and significance of global flags. How does the design, history, and symbolism intertwine to create the final result?

Like every other country, Cote d’Ivoire’s national flag is a common symbol in the nation’s history. Flags symbolize defeats and wins or send signals to international and national communities. Therefore, the Cote d’Ivoire flag was symbolically designed with careful color and design choices. 

So, what is the flag’s history, meaning, and symbolism? Does the color combination carry equal significance as other nations?

Let’s explore the deep history, meaning, and symbolism of the flag of Cote d’Ivoire. 

History of the Cote d’Ivoire Flag

Cote d’Ivoire is a West African country which became a French protectorate in 1844. Colonized in 1893, it achieved its independence in 1960. The country is also known as the Ivory Coast due to its trading activities during the 15th and 16th centuries. Like many other national flags, Cote d’Ivoire’s flag symbolizes unity, sovereignty, and national pride. It reminds us of freedom and the fighters’ sacrifice and courage.

In 1986, Cote d’Ivoire was declared as the formal name. But this was for formal and diplomatic protocols and non-French translations in national and international dealings weren’t allowed. 

The Cote d’Ivoire flag comes with unique colors, which are distinct from most African flags. This is because Félix Houphouet-Boigny ruled the country for 30 years, and he greatly admired French culture. This allowed him to maintain a cordial relationship with the colonialists. Due to this, he rejected the standard Pan-African colors (red, green, yellow). 

Cote D’Ivoire: French Colony

Cote d'Ivoire on a map

Cote d’Ivoire is a West African country which became a French protectorate in 1844. Colonized in 1893, it achieved its independence in 1960.


As a French colony, Cote d’Ivoire was represented by France’s flag. The colony government never allowed the use of any other flag. It felt this could lead to subsequent revolution, which was against its motive. 

But under Houphouet-Boigny’s authoritarian leadership, the government officially adopted the flag on December 3, 1959. The choice of colors has remained the same to date to express the conservative nature of Felix’s government. The stunning flag is adorned with three equal vertical stripes; orange, white, and green. These stripes are commonly known as the French Tricolor. 

But the adoption process was marred by a blustery debate in the Constituent Assembly. The then commissioner of the French government suggested a design resembling the American and French flags which had red stars. However, the design was rejected since the presence of the French flag could symbolize that the country was not fully independent.

Cote d’Ivoire’s Flag: Now and Then

Later, there was a motion in the Constituent Assembly to design an orange-white-green flag. Augustin Loubao thought replacing orange with red could be significant since red could symbolize bloodshed during liberation. Therefore, the suggestion was to have a red-white-green flag. However, the president of the Constituent Assembly, Philippe, refused to submit the proposal to the Assembly. Instead, he argued that the proposal was not tabled correctly. 

Philippe claimed that the flag’s Tricolor of orange-white-green was the country’s national emblem. But Mamadou Coulibaly explained that the vertical stripes symbolize dynamic youth that moves under union, discipline, and work dynamism. 

According to the country’s law, the flag should be placed:

  • In the right corner, in front of the Presidential vehicles and his representatives, including ambassadors, sous-prefets, and prefets.
  • On the deck of all public and semi-public administrations, either vertically or horizontally.
  • On all designated official buildings.
  • In the courtyard of all learning institutions, paramilitary, military, and barracks.
  • According to maritime regulations, all vessels sailing under Cote d’Ivoire should board this flag. Ship owners and fleet management companies are responsible for ensuring their vessels have appropriate flag signage.

Cote d’Ivoire: Similar Flags

One can easily confuse the Ivory Coast flag with that of Ireland. Both flags have the same colors and designs. Luckily, the color order is different, and as you can imagine, the histories and meanings also differ.

The Irish flag is represented through the French tri-colors. Unlike the Côte d’Ivoire one, the green color is the first, bordering the mast. Green is a shade representing the republican and Catholic causes. 

The white signifies hope for harmony and peace, while the orange represents Irish Protestants. White in Ireland calls for peace between the Catholics and Protestants. 

As discussed above, Cote d’Ivoire values harmony between people and their natural habitats. However, the Irish focus more on creating unity among people. The Irish flag is globally associated with St. Patrick’s Day.

India and Niger also have flags which resemble Cote d’Ivoire’s flag. The Indian flag was adopted in 1947, comprising three horizontal colours: orange-white-green. According to Indian beliefs, green signals chivalry and trust. White, like on most flags, represents truth and peace. Lastly, the orange stripes represent sacrifice and bravery.

The only distinctive difference is the navy blue spinning wheels dominating the center point. This wheel symbolizes positive transition and movement. 

The Republic of Niger has a flag adorned with similar colors to Cote d’Ivoire’s flag: green-white-orange. It’s almost identical to the Indian one with a horizontal color arrangement. However, in contrast with the three countries, Niger follows orange-white-green, with a round orange circle at the center.

These four flags are similar in colors but differ in color arrangement, history, meaning, and symbolism. More so, they were adopted at different times. 

Meaning and Symbolism of Cote d’Ivoire’s Flag 

African flags usually bear red to signify the bloodshed involved in liberation. This differs from Cote d’Ivoire, which chose white to maintain peace and harmony after gaining independence. 

©Artem Onoprienko/

Before adopting the current flag, Ivory Coast used the French flag with three vertical columns. The current Cote d’Ivoire flag resembles the Irish flag, but only the green and orange colors were replaced.

Three equal vertical columns are green on the right, white in the midpoint, and orange on the left. But what do these colors symbolize? Let’s find out below.


The orange stripes stand for the nation’s land, especially the northernmost regions, which are predominantly savannah in nature. Côte d’Ivoire, commonly known as Ivory Coast, is a sub-Saharan region with a southern coastline border on the Gulf of Guinea. The other three sides border five African nations, including Mali, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Liberia, and Ghana. 

The Guinea forest-savanna mosaic borders Liberia and Guinea, extending to the east through the west. The belt interlaces savanna, grassland, and forest habitats. 

Predominantly, the northern region is part of the magnificent savannas, shrubland, and subtropical grasslands. The soils are agriculturally productive and fertile even on the northern savanna. The terrain has mountains in the northwest, but most parts are flat. Hence, the orange color symbolizes this vast and rich land.


The white stripe symbolizes peace and the union of hearts. It gives hope that there shall be peace in all situations for Cote d’Ivoire. Peace is the path that brings prosperity and growth to any society. Without peace, achieving economic, cultural, and political stability becomes a far-fetched dream. 

After the invasion by the French colony, Cote d’Ivoire experienced turmoil and instability. Political tensions associated with colonization did put efforts to build the nation on hold. France imposed a slave trade and head taxes to boost exports.

France extended its laws, language, customs, and institutions to the colony through an assimilation policy. Locals could maintain their customs only if they served France’s interest. 

In 1944, Félix Houphouet-Boigny, the father of independence, founded the agriculture trade union to help native cocoa farmers. He soon became famous and rose through the ranks to become the first president of Cote d’Ivoire. It was through blood and sweat that the country gained its freedom and peace. The white color signifies the harmony achieved after brutal battles. 

African flags are usually bear red to signify the bloodshed involved in liberation. This differs from Cote d’Ivoire, which chose white to maintain peace and harmony after gaining independence. 


Green symbolizes hope for the future. It magnifies the forest belt of the nation, which is the top source of national prosperity. Cote d’Ivoire has three major ecological zones, including:

  • South humid evergreen forests
  • Domaines soudanais in the northern part
  • Semi-deciduous forests in the transition zone

The green color reminds leaders and citizens to maintain a green and productive land. It pays homage to nature, which must be conserved.

Cote D’Ivoire’s Fauna & Flora

To learn more about the beautiful landscape of Cote d’Ivoire and its unique animals, make sure to read this article on the animals in Cote d’Ivoire.

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The photo featured at the top of this post is © adaptice photography/


  1. Wikipedia, Available here:
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About the Author

Alan is a freelance writer and an avid traveler. He specializes in travel content. When he visits home he enjoys spending time with his family Rottie, Opie.

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