Lions are an apex predator known for their ferocity and hunting prowess. They’re obviously carnivores, but other questions remains. How much do lions eat, what is their favorite prey, and how often are their hunts successful? In the article below we’ll answer the question “what do lions eat” and much more!
How Lions Hunt and How Often Are they Successful?
Lions hunt in groups called prides that consist of up to a dozen females, their cubs, and no more than three males. While males are larger, females are significantly faster. For this reason, hunts on open savannas are primarily led by female lions. When male lions are hunting without a pride, they prefer denser habitats where they can surprise prey rather than open areas.
The group structure of lions makes them much more successful predators. In a study of 1,300 lion hunts, researchers found that lions hunting individually were successful on just 17% to 19% of hunts. However, when hunting in groups lions’ success rate jumped to 30%!
How Much Do Lions Eat?
An average human three to four pounds of food per day. If you’re a 200 pound male, that mens you’re eating about 2% your body weight (and probably feel pretty stuffed at the end!).
Lions can eat a lot more than people in a single sitting. Because lions will often go several days between successful hunts, they can eat up to 70 pounds (32 kilograms) in just one sitting! With prey like African buffalos weighing up to 2,000 pounds, this means lions can also gorge on large kills and feed a pride without leaving too many leftovers for hyenas and other scavengers like vultures.
What Do Lions Eat?
One of the most comprehensive studies on what lions eat was published in Behavioral Biology in 1993. The study took place at Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and studied the diets of lions. Specifically, it studied what animals they ate at outsized rates. The study isolated four animals as primary lion prey:
- Wart hogs
- Grant’s gazelles
Second, the authors of the study analyzed why the lions preferred this prey. They found that lions preferred prey that:
- Was in small prey groups
- Within 200 meters
- And in groups of the animals listed above
A similar study was undertaken to study Asiatic lion populations and their diet. The study was published in the Journal of Zoology in 2011 and took 5 years of observation. Of 258 kills, researchers found that:
- 53% were livestock and 47% wild
- 31% were cattle
- 28% chital
- 16% buffalo
- 6% wild pig
- 3% nilgai
- 3% goat
- 2% camel
It’s important to note that Asiatic lions live in a small area, around Gir National Forest. Due to the heavy population density of India and their limited range their livestock predation is significantly higher than you’d find in lions across Africa.
Beyond these lists, lions will eat about anything they can catch. They prefer larger prey, and in addition to the lists above will feast on deer, antelope, and giraffes. While lions will hunt giraffes, they do have a size limit! Lions generally will stay clear of the largest mammals such as elephants and rhinos once they’ve grown past adolescence.
Do Lions Eat other Predators like Hyenas and Leopards?
Hyenas are one of the few animals that will try eating a lion. While lions are not a common prey for hyenas, if a pack can find an aging male lion left alone, they will attempt to overwhelm it through sheer numbers.
The question is, will lions actively hunt other large predators in their range like hyenas, cheetahs, and leopards? Lions will attack and kill rival predators, but they will often leave their carcasses for scavengers. It’s good to be at the top of the food chain!
What Animals Do Lions Eat: A List of 15 of Their Top Prey
Lions primarily eat animals like:
- Wart hogs
- Grant’s gazelles
- Wild pig
- Hippopotamus (juvenile)
What Do Lions Eat at the Zoo?
Lions in zoos are obviously not fed preferred pray in the wild like zebras and wildebeests. Instead, lions in zoos mostly eat horse and beef products, but could be fed a variety of meats. Specialized companies like Nebraska Brands sell bone and horse meat products that are meant for large carnivores like lions.