If you have ever tried breeding dogs or even witnessed an accidental mating, you may have come across a seemingly bizarre occurrence. The dogs appear to get stuck together and cannot separate after having sex. If you are not aware that this can happen, it can be very alarming. However, this is something that is very common in the dog world. So, why do dogs get stuck when they mate? We examine this unique canine phenomenon and give you top tips from vets and experienced dog breeders on what you should do about it.
Why Do Dogs Get Stuck When They Mate?
Getting stuck together during mating is such a normal thing for dogs that it even has its own medical name. It is called a “copulatory tie” and is also seen in wild canines such as wolves and foxes. It happens because a section of the erectile tissue at the base of the male dog’s penis called the bulbus glandis gets very engorged with blood. This happens after the penis is inserted into the female and is triggered by the male dog thrusting. The bulbus glandis swells very rapidly and soon measures more than two times the diameter of the rest of the shaft of the penis. As a result, it gets stuck inside the female’s vagina (birth canal).
At the same time, the circular muscles at the entrance to the female dog’s vagina (the constrictor vestibuli muscles) contract and prevents the penis from moving back out. This results in a very secure lock and the dogs are tied together.
There is nothing that the dogs can do about it. It is completely out of their control.
What Role Does the Copulatory Tie Play in Breeding?
To understand this, we need to consider normal mating behavior in dogs. This usually starts with a male dog sniffing a female dog to check that she is on heat and therefore receptive to mating. However, she may also display her willingness to mate by presenting her butt in his direction and holding her tail to the side.
Once the male dog mounts her and begins to thrust he has a first ejaculation during which a pre-sperm ejaculate is released from his penis. It is after this that the bulbus glandis swells and the female dog’s constrictor vestibuli muscles contract. This forms the copulatory tie and the dogs are locked together. At this point, the male dog stops thrusting and ejaculates his sperm into the female.
After dismounting but whilst still in the copulatory tie, the male dog finally ejaculates the post-sperm fraction of the ejaculate. This can take anything from 5 to 30 minutes.
What Does a Copulatory Tie Look Like?
Once the male dog has ejaculated, he dismounts the female and turns around at a 180-degree angle so that the dogs are now facing in opposite directions. However, his penis is still ‘locked’ inside the female. They look like two dogs that have their butts glued together. It sounds quite comical but is very alarming if you have not seen it before or have no idea what it is. Dogs can stay like this for over half an hour.
Why Is the Copulatory Tie Needed in Dogs?
Every type of animal has adapted to give themselves the best chance of producing young. For example, cats become fertile (it’s called queening) every 21 days or so. This gives them loads of chances every year to become pregnant. However, female dogs are only fertile twice a year. It is called being “in heat” or “in season.” Dogs need to make sure that they make the most of these rare opportunities to mate. So, they have evolved to have a copulatory tie.
When the dogs are locked together, during and after ejaculation, it traps the sperm inside the female. This gives it the best chance of reaching and fertilizing the egg to produce a litter of pups.
How Long Does the Copulatory Tie Last?
Not every mating has a copulatory tie or it may be so brief that you don’t notice it has happened. However, for most dogs, it lasts between 5 and 15 minutes. In some cases, it has gone on for 45 minutes.
For dogs that are mating for the first time, this can be distressing. For others, it is what they expect to happen.
The Copulatory Tie and Pregnancy
There are a lot of myths surrounding the copulatory tie so let’s look at the science to get the truth. As long as a male dog ejaculates inside the female, there is a chance that she can get pregnant. The copulatory tie is not necessary but it greatly increases the chances of pregnancy. Therefore, breeders look out for it as a sign of successful mating. They also think that the longer the copulatory tie lasts, the higher the chance of a successful pregnancy. This makes scientific sense because the sperm has longer to reach the egg.
However, the fact that there has been a copulatory tie does not guarantee a pregnancy. There are loads of other reasons affecting both the male and female dog that can prevent fertilization from taking place.
So, the bottom line is that a copulatory tie is a good sign but there are no guarantees when it comes to animal breeding.
What to Do About a Copulatory Tie
This is the one dog behavior that you should do nothing about! A lack of breeding experience can make some dogs distressed during the process but unfortunately, there is nothing that you can do to help. You simply have to let nature take its course.
Never try to forcibly separate the dogs because this can cause injury and a lot of distress to both of them. It also decreases the chances of a successful pregnancy. If you don’t want your dog to get pregnant, you must take steps to keep her away from males when she is on heat. Once a copulatory tie is underway it is too late!
Watching a copulatory tie can be very uncomfortable and distressing for inexperienced dog owners but it is essential that you keep calm. If you panic, it will make the dogs even more anxious and make the situation worse.
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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
Does it hurt dogs to get stuck together when mating?
During a first breeding, it is possible that the dogs can experience some discomfort and/or anxiety. It actually makes matters worse if you try to break the copulatory tie and you will only cause more distress. As they become more experienced, it will not be a problem.
Why do female dogs cry when mating?
This is usually because the female dog wants to get the male dog’s attention. It happens when she is on heat and therefore receptive to mating. You may also notice that she places her head on her back and paws at him. Some females will even mount a male dog to let him know that she is ready to mate.
Do neutered dogs have a copulatory tie?
Most neutered male dogs will not have a copulatory tie because the bulbis glandis will not swell. However, if your dog has only recently been neutered, it can happen because he will still have a lot of testosterone in his body.