Quebec is a wonderful province in Canada, with a rich culture, gorgeous animals, and lush greenery. Many people cultivate beautiful gardens that stay lively all year in the area. However, choosing the perfect flowers to grow in Quebec can’t be done without a plan. Flowers, and other plants, are prone to pests, disease, and varying weather conditions.
There are many wonderful parts of living in Quebec, but the intensely cold winters are offputting for some (and ideal for others). Regardless of where you stand, living in Quebec means experiencing cold winters. For those who want to plant the perfect flowers in Quebec, read below for cold-tolerant options that create gorgeous blooms.
10 Best Flowers to Plant in Quebec
#1 Common Evening Primrose (Oenothera biennis)
Among the best flowers to plant in Quebec, the common evening primrose is a top choice. The flower is biennial, so you’ll see it grow in a vegetative way the first year and then flower during the second year. They have a hardiness level at zone two, meaning they can tolerate temperatures between -40 and -50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Plant this flower in the late fall and watch it grow quickly. Evening primrose is a self-seeding flower, so though it dies after the second year, it will return with proper care. When the flowers bloom, during the plant’s second year of life from July to October, they are a gorgeous yellow. The petals open late in the evening and close by noon the next day. The blossoms give off a citrus scent and are popular with nighttime pollinators, including moths.
The common evening primrose requires full sunlight, moist and well-drained soil, and a neutral or slightly acidic pH level.
#2 Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
Another top choice for the best flowers to plant in Quebec is the common milkweed. The plant is a perennial and often lives for more than two years. The milkweed flowers during its first year of growth. They have a hardiness level at zone three, so can tolerate temperatures between -30 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit.
You can plant this flower in early spring, after the frost has cleared, or in late fall by direct-sowing the seeds into the ground. Common milkweed is a self-seeding flower and needs its own space in a garden to flourish. Remove fruits before they open, or create a barrier in the soil to prevent unmanaged propagation.
The common milkweed blooms fragrant flowers of pink and purple that grow in clusters. Some flowers are white as well. All blossoms occur from June to August. All parts of the common milkweed are toxic to humans and all animals except the monarch butterfly. The butterfly relies on the flower to survive. Caterpillars feed on the leaves and cocoon themselves on the plant.
The common milkweed requires full sunlight; dry or fresh, well-drained soil; and a slightly acidic pH level.
#3 Common Sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)
The common sneezeweed is a wonderful addition to the best flowers to plant in Quebec. The plant is a perennial native to the area and often has a lifespan of multiple years. The sneezeweed has a hardiness level in zone four, meaning that it can tolerate temperatures between -20 and -30 degrees Fahrenheit.
These flowers are hardy during the winter, but for extra protection, gardeners can spread a 6-inch layer of hay or mulch over the bed. Remove the layer after the spring frost clears.
For planting, the common sneezeweed will take best to the soil in late spring and early summer. This plant does not self-seed, but it can be propagated from cuttings and placed in other parts of the garden.
The common sneezeweed, in nature, has bright yellow blossoms. Botanists cultivated the plant to include red and orange flowers. These flowers are toxic for humans to consume in large quantities. They have no particular fragrance but attract butterflies, bees, and other pollinators.
The common name references that people used the dried leaves to make a snuff that would encourage sneezing. Sneezing, in the olden days, apparently relieved headaches and cleared mucus.
The common sneezeweed requires full sun, moist and well-drained soil, and a slightly acidic pH level. They can withstand partial flooding and thrive in clay.
#4 Cutleaf Coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata var. ampla)
The cutleaf coneflower is one of the best flowers to plant in Quebec. It is a perennial known for its hardiness, drought tolerance, and long bloom. The cutleaf coneflower has a hardiness level in zone three, so it can tolerate temperatures between -30 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit. In their first year, the plants could require a bit of extra protection.
Plant the flowers in early spring after the frost has passed for the best results. The germination period lasts about three to four weeks and leaves come after about three months. Blooms can take up to two years to occur. They will repeat-bloom throughout the frost seasons. The hardiness of the plant, thanks to its fibrous root system, makes it ideal for dividing and propagating.
After up to two years, the cutleaf coneflower blossoms in the summer from July to September. The flowers are naturally yellow. Botanists cultivated them to include purple, red, and orange, among other colors. It is not safe for humans to eat the plant but it attracts a wide variety of pollinators and animals, including hummingbirds and finches.
The cutleaf coneflower requires full sun to semi-shade, well-drained soil, and a slightly acidic pH level.
#5 False Sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides)
The false sunflower is native to Quebec, making it another one of the best flowers to plant in the area. It is a perennial that resembles a small version of the common yellow sunflower. The difference is that false sunflowers do not lose their flower head rays, while true sunflowers do. The false sunflower sits at zone four of the hardiness level, tolerating temperatures between -20 and -30 degrees Fahrenheit.
These flowers are best started in spring or fall. While the false sunflowers will grow quite quickly, they usually won’t produce blossoms until after the first year. The plants propagate well via harvested seeds and clippings, or biannual divisions.
After a year, the false sunflower creates gorgeous yellow and sometimes orange blossoms. The flowers appear from mid- to late summer between June and September. They do not give off a particular fragrance, and they are non-toxic. People sometimes use them in teas or herbal mixtures.
The false sunflower requires full sun, moist, well-drained, and loamy soil, and an acidic and alkaline pH level.
#6 Harlequin Blue Flag (Iris versicolor)
Because it is the floral emblem of Quebec, the harlequin blue flag is one of the perfect flowers to grow in the area. The plant is a perennial that thrives in the hardiness level of zone two (between temperatures of -40 and -50 degrees Fahrenheit). While hardy as an adult, the young blue flag would benefit from winter protection for its first year.
The harlequin blue flag is best grown outdoors in the late fall or mid-winter. The flowers self-seed and can take over a garden without proper care. They thrive near water. The plant will flower in winter after the first year of planting.
Flowers are a rich purple or blue color with yellow in the center. The harlequin blue flag is toxic to humans and pets. Handle the plant with gloves because its rhizomes are toxic.
The harlequin blue flag requires full sun or semi-shade, moist, loamy soil, and an acidic pH level.
#7 Seaside Goldenrod (Solidago sempervirens)
The seaside goldenrod makes a great addition to the best flowers to grow in Quebec. The perennial plant thrives between temperatures of -30 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit, placing it in zone three of the hardiness level. After frost kills the foliage, the plants can be cut down to a few inches to encourage growth for the next season.
For planting, the seaside goldenrod takes best during the spring or the fall. Some varieties grow quite tall and require staking to stay upright. The young plants require weekly watering but no fertilizer. The goldenrods should be propagated in the spring.
Flowers appear after the first year, in the late spring, and are voluminous. They range between bright and pale yellow and give off a spicy, licorice scent. The flowers attract birds, butterflies, and other pollinators.
The seaside goldenrod requires full sunlight, well-drained stony soil, and an acidic pH level.
#8 Slender Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum tenuifolium)
The slender mountain mint is a bushy, native plant that makes a perfect flower to grow in Quebec. The perennial sits in zone four of the hardiness level and can tolerate temperatures between -20 and -30 degrees Fahrenheit.
Plant the slender mountain mint in late spring after the frost clears. The plant grows in a stocky, compact cluster and will begin to flower once it’s grown to one foot or higher. For propagation, cut the tips of the plants in June but wait to divide the clumps until late fall or early spring. Ripe seeds will fall out if the stem is bent and shaken.
In mid-summer, magnificent white, blue, and purple flowers will blossom from June to September. Butterflies and other insect pollinators are attracted to the rich nectar. Both the flowers and the leaves give off a minty fragrance, and the leaves can be dried for tea.
The slender mountain mint requires full sun, rocky and well-draining soil, and an acidic pH level.
#9 Pearly Everlasting
The pearly everlasting is another spectacular, indigenous addition to the best flowers to plant in Quebec. The perennial plant can tolerate temperatures between -30 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit, making it a zone three of the hardiness level inhabitant.
To plant pearly everlasting in a garden, grow indoors for seven weeks from seeds. The flowering plant should be transferred outside after the last frost of spring. The flowers will typically bloom after one year. Propagation is done via seeds or by cutting some of the roots in early spring.
In summer and into early fall, the pearly everlasting blossoms. The flowers are either white or pale yellow. They do not give off a particular fragrance and are a favorite in dry bouquets. Butterflies love these blooms and deers avoid them.
The pearly everlasting needs full sun, dry, sandy, or stony soil, and a slightly acidic pH level.
#10 White Turtlehead
A native to Quebec, the white turtlehead is a perfect flower to plant in a garden. The plant is in zone three of the hardiness level, meaning that it can tolerate temperatures between -30 and -40 degrees Fahrenheit.
The white turtlehead is best planted in the spring or summer so that it can establish itself before the winter. The plant grows slowly and could take a few years before it produces flowers. Through their growing and blooming seasons, the white turtlehead requires regular moisture (especially in its first years).
Once it blooms, however, the white turtlehead blossoms will stay open and vibrant for anywhere from three to six weeks. The first bloom occurs in summer, and if pruned properly, a second bloom will occur in the fall. The flowers are usually a pale white with a dusting of pink on the edges.
The white turtlehead needs full sun or semi-shade, rich and moist soil, and an acidic pH level.
Summary of the 10 Best Flowers to Plant in Quebec
|Common evening primrose
|full sun to semi-shade
|Harlequin blue flag
|full sun to semi-shade
|Slender mountain mint
|full sun to semi-shade
The photo featured at the top of this post is © iStock.com/Nadanka
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