The Flag of Nicaragua: History, Meaning, and Symbolism

Written by Alan Lemus
Published: December 9, 2022
© REC Stock Footage/
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A country’s flag is like its trademark and a symbol of national unity. Countries have different designs for their flags to communicate their virtues and beliefs. The flag of Nicaragua consists of three horizontal stripes: two azure stripes sandwiching a white stripe with a coat of arms. Its width-to-length ratio is 3:5. The flag draws inspiration from the Argentine flag and that of the Federal Republic of Central America, which have similar colors. The coat of arms contains many colors and symbols. 

The current flag was first used in 1908. The design was recognized as the official Nicaraguan flag in 1971 and used from 1975. 

It is also one of the few flags that uses the color purple. This color is in the rainbow on the country’s coat of arms. Other national flags with purple include El Salvador and Dominica. In addition, purple appears on the Wiphala, Bolivia’s co-official national flag.

The Nicaraguan flag, despite its simple design, has a rich history. Let us learn more about this Central American country’s flag and its significance.

History of the Flag of Nicaragua

Officially called the Republic of Nicaragua, it is Central America’s largest country. Managua is its capital and one of the biggest cities in Central America.

Nicaragua borders Costa Rica (south), Honduras (northwest), and the Caribbean Sea (east). Also known as the Land of Lakes and Volcanoes, Nicaragua has a population of about 6.3 million. 

It is a culturally diverse country, owing to its different ethnic composition. The primary ethnic groups are Mestizo, at 69% of the population; white, at 17%; black, at 9%; and indigenous, at 5%. Spanish is the official language, with other recognized languages being English, Rama, Sumo, and Miskito. Rama, Sumo, and Miskito languages are mainly regional.

Christianity is the most dominant religion in Nicaragua, with roughly 84% of Nicaraguans identifying as Christians. Presently, the country enjoys a state of stability under the leadership of President Daniel Ortega, deputized by Vice-President Rosario Murillo. 

In the past, Nicaragua faced a long spell of political instability, which ushered in the Nicaraguan Revolution that lasted for more than 28 years. 

Tourism and agriculture are this nation’s primary economic activities. However, it is Central America’s poorest country and the Western Hemisphere’s second poorest country.

As mentioned earlier, the Nicaraguan flag has a rich history, dating back to 1823. Central America attained its independence from Spain two years prior, although Mexico occupied the area for two years. 

Nicaragua had its first flag in 1823, which resembled that of the United Province of Central America. It looked similar to the current Nicaraguan flag, with a blue-white-blue sequence, and a coat of arms in the white strip. The difference between the two flags was the subtle use of deeper blue shades, especially on the sea and borders of the coat of arms. 

This flag lasted from 1823 to 1825, before Nicaragua joined other countries to form the Federal Republic of Central America. However, the new federal republic did not last long, having collapsed in 1854.

The Federal Republic Era (1824 To 1854)

This was a short-lived country that comprised the following countries that still exist today:

  • Nicaragua
  • Costa Rica
  • Honduras
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala

Also part of the federation was Los Altos, now part of the western region of Guatemala. Like Nicaragua, Guatemala is home to rainforests and volcanoes. 

As a result of the short-lived union, the national flags of the above five country’s closely resemble one another, with a few minor alterations.

Nicaragua’s flag still borrowed many features from that of the defunct federal republic. Both had the two blue horizontal stripes sandwiching a white stripe with a coat of arms. The differences were minor, mainly in the coat of arms detail. Also, the Nicaraguan flag has a deeper shade of blue.

The federal country dissolved with Nicaragua’s withdrawal in 1838, and the union underwent a civil war. The Federal Republic officially broke in 1941, signifying the end of the use of that flag. However, despite the dissolution, Nicaragua still used the flag for a time. 

The Attributed Flag of Nicaragua (1852 to 1854)

From 1852 to 1854, an unofficial flag was different from Nicaragua’s previous flag. Instead of the blue and white stripes, the Attributed flag featured white, yellow, and red horizontal stripes (from top to bottom). In addition, the yellow stripe in the middle had a green mountain.

The 1854-1858 and 1873-1889 Version

In 1854, Nicaragua ditched the blue and white flag for an updated one sporting yellow, white, and tan stripes. The country used this flag between 1854 and 1858 and again from 1873 to 1889. 

The Walker Flag (1856 to 1857)

William Walker was an American mercenary who invaded Mexico before shifting his sights to Nicaragua in 1856. He was an unrecognized ruler of Nicaragua from 1856 to 1857. During his rule, Nicaragua had an unofficial flag with a blue-white-blue pattern and a red star in the middle. 

Back to the Roots (1858 To 1899)

From 1858 to 1873, Nicaragua returned to its roots, using the blue and white striped flag. A noticeable difference in this flag is the missing coat of arms. Nicaragua used this version again from 1893 to 1896. 

In 1896, the flag featured a lighter shade of blue and a coat of arms added to the central white stripe. Then, the flag used a darker shade of blue for one month‚ÄĒNovember 1899. It also sported a new coat of arms, with five gold stars and the words ‚ÄúRepublic Mayor De Centro America,‚ÄĚ which translates to ‚Äúthe Greater Republic of Central America.‚ÄĚ

The 1908 Version

In 1908, the country adopted a new flag, which resembled the previous ones, but with changes in the coat of arms and a lighter shade of blue. This flag is still in use in Nicaragua to date.

Nicaragua During the US Occupation

Nicaragua has a long history with the United States, dating back several centuries. However, the relationship between the two countries took a unique twist during the peak of the Banana Wars, when the United States invaded several Central American countries, including Nicaragua.

From 1912 to 1933, Nicaragua used the flag of the United States of America. However, it reverted to its own flag after US armed forces left its soil. 

Flags of the Mosquito Coast

The Mosquito Coast is a coastal region shared by Nicaragua and Honduras. Its name comes from the Miskito Indians, who inhabit the area. Nicaragua took control of the coast in 1860 and militarily incorporated it into its borders in 1894.

During its existence, Mosquito Coast used several flags. 

From 1844 to 1860, while still a British protectorate, it had a modified Nicaraguan flag featuring nine white and blue stripes and the Union Jack at the top left corner. After becoming part of Nicaragua in 1860, a white, blue, and red coat of arms replaced the Union Jack.

The Sandinista Flag

The Sandinista National Liberation Front is a political party based on socialism and named after Augusto Cesar Sandino. After overthrowing Anastasio Debayle in 1979, the party’s carmine red and black flag acted as Nicaragua’s secondary flag until 1990.

The Meaning and Symbolism of the Flag of Nicaragua

Flag of Nicaragua
The triangle on the coat of arms signifies unity and depicts a landscape of mountain ranges, the sea, and a rainbow.


The two blue or azure symbols on the Nicaraguan flag represent the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The colors also represent loyalty and justice. The white stripe symbolizes peace. 

Nicaragua uses the flag to show its loyalty to its origins as part of the United Province of Central America, which used a similar flag. 

The Nicaraguan Coat of Arms

The white stripe has the country’s coat of arms, a symbol you will encounter frequently in Nicaragua, especially in government institutions. The coat of arms underwent several changes before its current design and drew inspiration from the flag of the United Province of Central America.

The triangle on the coat of arms signifies unity and depicts a landscape of mountain ranges, the sea, and a rainbow. The five volcanoes signify the oneness of the five Central American countries, which were a single country at one time. 

The rainbow symbolizes unity, while the Phrygian cap signifies loyalty. Golden words, ‚ÄúRepublica De Nicaragua ‚Äď Central,‚ÄĚ translated to ‚ÄúThe Republic of Nicaragua ‚Äď Central America,‚ÄĚ surround the emblem.¬†

The Significance of the Nicaraguan Flag

The Nicaraguan flag is significant to the country in many ways, as highlighted below.

A Remembrance of the Nicaraguan Roots

The flag of Nicaragua communicates its deep roots as a Central American nation. It still has the original flag used by the Federal Republic of Central America.

It also references these roots in its coat of arms, with symbols like the five volcanoes representing the original Central American countries. 

An Appreciation of Its Geography

The flag appreciates the geography of the country, a considerable part of its identity. In addition, the flag captures the essence of Nicaragua’s landscape, such as the seas, mountains, and lush vegetation.

It Is a Symbol of National Unity

Like in many countries, the flag is a symbol of national unity. The flag of Nicaragua shows the pride of Nicaraguans. It is the country’s trademark and identity. Nicaraguans identify themselves by the colors of their flag at international events. It also communicates their values, such as loyalty, justice, and unity.

Apart from the flag, several symbols show Nicaraguan pride. The national anthem is one of them. Known as ‚ÄúSalve a ti, Nicaragua,‚ÄĚ which translates to ‚ÄúSave You, Nicaragua,‚ÄĚ the national anthem was approved in 1939 but first sung in 1918.¬†

Its official adoption was in 1971. It is one of the shortest anthems in the Americas. It is also one of the few national anthems that does not proclaim war.

Madrono, or lemonwood, is Nicaragua’s national tree, while the sacuanjoche, or plumeria, is the country’s national flower. The guardabarranco, or turquoise-browed motmot, is the country’s national bird.

Final Thoughts

The Nicaraguan flag is a symbol of its identity, pride, and history, showing its roots as a Central American country. It has a rich history, dating back to the early 19th Century when it gained its independence as part of the Federal Republic of Central America. The flag carries Nicaraguans’ culture, history, values, identity, and aspirations.

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Nicaragua's flag
The flag of Nicaragua is one of the few nation's flags to include purple.
© REC Stock Footage/

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About the Author

Alan is a freelance writer and an avid traveler. He specializes in travel content. When he visits home he enjoys spending time with his family Rottie, Opie.

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