How Smart Are Golden Retrievers? Everything We Know About Their Intelligence

Written by Katarina Betterton
Updated: October 25, 2023
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For decades, golden retrievers have ranked as the world’s most popular breed of dog to own. Though they lost their “top dog” spot to French bulldogs in 2022, golden retrievers remain a loveable, adorable, and smart-as-a-whip dogs. 

Each canine will have an individual aptitude based on their personality and genetics, but some breeds are just smarter than others. Golden retrievers rank among those breeds with the highest canine intelligence, but exactly how smart are they?

Keep reading to discover what canine intelligence is, the cognitive abilities of golden retrievers, and the answer to the question, “How smart are golden retrievers?” 

Understanding Canine Intelligence

Animal, Beige, Blanket, Boredom, Brown

Golden retrievers, like all dogs, have three types of intelligence.


Did you know there’s more than one type of intelligence in dogs? In fact, there are three different types of intelligence:

  • Adaptive intelligence.
  • Instinctive intelligence.
  • Working and obedience intelligence.

Adaptive Intelligence

Adaptive intelligence — the kind golden retrievers are most skilled in — focuses on social skills and problem-solving. Dogs with high adaptive intelligence are always learning; they can interpret facial expressions, find hidden treats, and sharpen their mind’s ability based on solving situations with little to no help from others. This is the type of intelligence that makes a dog feel “human.”

Instinctive Intelligence

While adaptive intelligence describes how well a dog can solve problems on its own, instinctive intelligence describes how well a dog can perform the tasks it was bred to do. Herding, guarding, fetching, and companionship fall under this category. Golden retrievers were bred to work in the fields and hunt, so if your golden is an energetic dog that eagerly looks for its next task to complete, it has high instinctive intelligence.

Working Intelligence

Similar but different from instinctive intelligence is working intelligence. This type of intelligence describes a dog’s proclivity to learn from its humans; most of the time, apart from what it was bred to do. This intelligence manifests through training classes, at-home training work, and more.

Many factors influence how “smart” a dog is — from its parents to its breed, to its environment, to the level of training it receives. 

Exploring the Intelligence of Golden Retrievers

Golden Retriever Dog

Golden retrievers were originally hunting dogs.

© Consaul

Happy-go-lucky and energetic, golden retrievers weren’t always domesticated animals. In fact, they were bred to retrieve and serve as hunting companions for farmers and hunters. Hundreds of years ago, owners trained their goldens to accompany them on hunts to fetch felled small game (like waterfowl) during a hunt. Over the years, humans wanted to train out the aggressiveness in the breed and add in the ability to perform specific tasks that made their work easier.

Did you know that the American Kennel Club ranks golden retrievers as one of the most trainable dog breeds out of 138 recognized breeds? Some of the only other breeds that outrank them are border collies and German shepherds.

On average, golden retrievers can learn a new command or “trick” with fewer than five repetitions. Dogs with average intelligence take anywhere between 15 and 40 repetitions to learn the same command, meaning goldens are at least five times faster at learning tricks than a dog of average intelligence.

Cognitive Abilities of Golden Retrievers

Dog, Family, Summer, Swimming, Underwater

Great at swimming as well as running, goldens are perfect dogs for search and rescue teams.


Golden retrievers succeed a lot when it comes to intelligence, but two specific facets are problem-solving and emotional intelligence.

Because golden retrievers have such a keen ability to solve problems, they make excellent additions to search-and-rescue teams. Dozens of case studies have found these uncanny abilities to work in various conditions. For example, a search-and-rescue dog named Rio was training to find a missing person, but the volunteer who was the “missing person” moved from the place they were assigned to stand. Without giving up, Rio used his nose to track the volunteer’s scent until he found his target.

As for emotional intelligence, golden retrievers rate high on the adaptive intelligence scale — meaning they can detect changes in facial features and understand the emotions of people in a room. Add onto that their problem-solving ability and they make incredible emotional support animals.

Golden Retrievers’ Learning Aptitude: How Quick and Adaptive Are They?

golden retriever

Golden retrievers are fast learners.

©Africa Studio/

While the speed of learning a new command varies by dog and outside factors, golden retrievers can usually learn tricks faster than their counterparts (as explained above). That’s one reason golden retrievers rank as one of the top breeds for service dogs. 

A hallmark of the golden retriever is its easy-going personality that makes it unruffled by external forces. Especially helpful in situations for those with service animals, these dogs can stay alert and focused on a mission rather than giving into whims and “checking something out” for themselves. 

They remain fast learners and active dogs — a combination that creates a smart breed ready to take on the challenge of learning dozens, or even hundreds of commands to help their humans.

Intelligence Ranking: Where Do Golden Retrievers Stand Among Other Breeds?

While it’s challenging to quantify intelligence definitively, the concept of “working intelligence” proposed by Stanley Coren in his book “The Intelligence of Dogs” can shed some light on the subject. Coren’s theory classifies dog breeds into different levels of working intelligence based on their ability to understand and obey commands.

Golden retrievers consistently rank high in terms of working intelligence. They are considered to be in the top tiers, often falling within the top five out of 138 breeds evaluated by Coren. This places them among the most intelligent breeds, showcasing their ability to learn and execute commands quickly.

However, it’s important to note that intelligence can manifest in various ways, and different breeds excel in different areas. While golden retrievers might not be at the very top of the list, they make up for it with their exceptional adaptability, problem-solving skills, and eagerness to please their owners, making them brilliant companions and highly capable working dogs in various fields.

Unlocking Golden Retrievers’ Intelligence Potential: Training Techniques and Mental Stimulation

why can't dogs talk

Golden retrievers can have many commands at their disposal.

© Blanco

Golden retrievers are beloved family pets known for their friendly nature, loyalty, and intelligence. As one of the most popular dog breeds worldwide, they excel in various roles, from guide dogs for the visually impaired to search and rescue partners. To fully harness their intelligence potential and ensure they lead happy, fulfilled lives, it is essential to implement effective training techniques and provide them with sufficient mental stimulation. 

Positive Reinforcement Training

Golden retrievers respond exceptionally well to positive reinforcement training. This technique involves rewarding desirable behaviors to reinforce their repetition. Rewards can include verbal praise, treats, or affectionate pats on the head. It is essential to use positive reinforcement consistently and avoid punishment-based methods, as this can harm their trust and confidence. Patience and consistency are key to successful training.

Start Early

Begin training your golden retriever as early as possible. Puppies have a sensitive period for learning, which typically occurs between three to 14 weeks of age. During this phase, they are more receptive to new experiences and can quickly grasp basic commands.

Basic Commands and Beyond

Teaching basic commands such as sit, stay, come, and heel are essential for a well-mannered golden retriever. Once they master the basics, you can progress to more advanced commands and tricks. Engaging their minds with complex tasks like “fetch the newspaper” or “find the toy” challenges their problem-solving abilities and strengthens their bond with you.

Interactive Play

Interactive play is a fantastic way to stimulate a golden retriever’s mind and keep them mentally sharp. Games like hide-and-seek, puzzle toys, and interactive fetch toys can provide both physical and mental exercise. These activities tap into their natural instincts and prevent boredom, which can lead to destructive behaviors.

Canine Sports and Activities

Golden retrievers excel in various canine sports and activities. Agility training, flyball, dock diving, and obedience competitions are excellent outlets for their energy and intelligence. Participating in these activities provides mental stimulation, boosts their confidence, and fosters a sense of accomplishment.

Enriching the Environment

Enriching the dog’s environment is another effective way to unlock their intelligence potential. Rotate their toys regularly, introduce new toys, and create obstacle courses or scavenger hunts around the house or backyard. Novel experiences keep their minds engaged and prevent them from becoming complacent.

Socialization and Interaction

Socialization is crucial for golden retrievers. Exposing them to various people, animals, and environments from an early age helps them develop into confident and well-adjusted dogs. A well-socialized golden retriever is more open to learning and adapting to new situations, which enhances their overall intelligence.

Challenges and Problem-Solving

Golden retrievers thrive on challenges. Introduce them to new experiences, tasks, and problem-solving situations. For instance, you can hide treats in different locations around the house and encourage them to find them using their keen sense of smell. This activity not only keeps them mentally stimulated but also taps into their hunting instincts.

The Human-Canine Bond and It’s Influence on Intelligence

One of the factors that contribute to a golden’s intelligence is their relationship with their handler. Those with closer relationships have a much higher chance of learning more — and more complicated — commands. 

Golden retrievers learn more with owners, trainers, and handlers they’re close to because they’re loyal dogs who respect what their “pack leader” has to say. 

Nurturing Your Golden Retriever’s Intelligence

With such a smart dog on your hands, you may be wondering how you can keep up. Thankfully, thousands of owners have wondered the same things over the years. If you’re looking to provide mental stimulation and enrichment to your golden retriever, several great ways exist to nurture their big brain.

First, choose games and activities that challenge their minds. Nothing will be more boring to a golden retriever than a puzzle they already solved. The best way to foster evolving problem-solving and intelligence in your golden retriever is to train new tricks consistently and vary their routine.

Training doesn’t have to be overly complex — like learning how to open a fridge door and grab a bottle of water — but it does have to be something new to your dog to learn. Adding to their long list of “tricks” they know on command gives goldens a purpose and task to complete. Furthermore, varying their routine doesn’t need to be uncomfortable; it just needs to make them think a little. For example, if they always take the same path from the backyard to the porch door, put something in their way and let them figure out how to get around it.

Debunking Myths about Golden Retriever Intelligence

Golden retriever playing in the grass

While silly during playtime, goldens can become serious when they need to.


Somewhere along history and pop culture references, golden retrievers have caught the attention of several myths, like they’re dopey or can’t learn obedience.

Of course, this article has covered all the reasons those myths are false and answered: “How smart are golden retrievers?”

Some people mistake golden retrievers for Labrador retrievers (“labs”) and equate the depiction of the dog in “Marley and Me” as a golden retriever. Unlike labs, goldens are eager to please and easy to train — as long as they have a good environment and a steadfast teacher. 

Additionally, while golden retrievers can be silly, they have the natural drive to hunt, protect, and fetch, meaning they will place work above play in serious situations. 

Golden Retrievers Are Smart, Silly, and Some of the Best Dogs 

In conclusion, golden retrievers are wicked-smart dogs. They have a high probability of learning tricks fast and well without much repetition. On the whole, the breed tends to rank among the highest intelligence for all three types of measured dog intelligence. Golden retrievers can learn to search out people and scents, emotionally support their family, or play fetch games and find other small animals during hunts.

Up next, learn more about working dog breeds or a golden retriever’s gestational period.

The photo featured at the top of this post is ©

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About the Author

Katarina is a writer at A-Z Animals where her primary focus is on dogs, travel, and unique aspects about towns, cities, and countries in the world. Katarina has been writing professionally for eight years. She secured two Bachelors degrees — in PR and Advertising — in 2017 from Rowan University and is currently working toward a Master's degree in creative writing. Katarina also volunteers for her local animal shelter and plans vacations across the globe for her friend group. A resident of Ohio, Katarina enjoys writing fiction novels, gardening, and working to train her three dogs to speak using "talk" buttons.

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