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Fossa

Fossa - Rare Species Centre, Kent, EnglandFossa (Cryptoprocta ferox)A close-up of a Fossa.Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) im Zoo FrankfurtA Fossa curled up sleeping.A close-up of a Fossa.Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox)Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox)Fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox) at the Rosamond Gifford Zoo, Syracuse, New York
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Fossa Facts

Kingdom:
Five groups that classify all living things
Animalia
Phylum:
A group of animals within the animal kingdom
Chordata
Class:
A group of animals within a pylum
Mammalia
Order:
A group of animals within a class
Carnivora
Family:
A group of animals within an order
Eupleridae
Genus:
A group of animals within a family
Cryptoprocta
Scientific Name:
Comprised of the genus followed by the species
Cryptoprocta ferox
Common Name:
Most widely used name for the species
Fossa
Group:
The domestic group such as cat or dog
Mammal
Number Of Species:1
Location:Madagascar
Habitat:
The specific area where the animal lives
Dense tropical forest
Colour:
The colour of the animal's coat or markings
Red, Brown, Black
Skin Type:
The protective layer of the animal
Fur
Size (L):
How long (L) or tall (H) the animal is
61cm - 80cm (24in - 32in))
Weight:
The measurement of how heavy the animal is
7kg - 12kg (15lbs - 28.5lbs)
Top Speed:
The fastest recorded speed of the animal
56kph (35mph)
Diet:
What kind of foods the animal eats
Carnivore
Prey:
The food that the animal gains energy from
Lemurs, Frogs, Lizards
Predators:
Other animals that hunt and eat the animal
Human, Crocodile
Lifestyle:
Whether the animal is solitary or sociable
Nocturnal
Group Behaviour:Solitary
Life Span:
How long the animal lives for
15 - 20 years
Age Of Sexual Maturity:4 years
Gestation Period:3 months
Average Litter Size:
The average number of babies born at once
2
Name Of Young:Cub
Age Of Weaning:4 months
Conservation Status:
The likelihood of the animal becoming extinct
Endangered
Estimated Population Size:Less than 2,500
Biggest Threat:Habitat loss
Most Distinctive Feature:Webbed toes and retractable claws
Fun Fact:Most closely related to the Mongoose!

Fossa Location

Map of Fossa Locations
Map of Africa

Fossa

Fossa Classification and Evolution
The Fossa is a medium-sized carnivore that is found exclusively on the island of Madagascar. The Fossa belongs to the Malagasy Carnivores group which are thought to have descended from Mongoose-like ancestors that arrived on Madagascar from Africa up to 24 million years ago. The Fossa is not only one of the most ancient of the eight species found on the island but it is also the largest, meaning that the Fossa is Madagascar's largest mammalian predator. However, due to the cat-like appearance of the Fossa it was believed to be a primitive species of feline until recently. Sadly like a number of the unique animal species found in Madagascar today though, the Fossa is incredibly rare and is now considered to be endangered in its natural habitat primarily due to habitat loss.

Fossa Anatomy and Appearance
The Fossa is the largest land predator on the island of Madagascar with some individuals growing to nearly two meters in length from their snout to the tip of their long and slender tail. The tail of the Fossa is around the same length as its body and plays a crucial role in helping the animal to balance whilst it is leaping through the trees. The Fossa has short but dense red to dark brown fur and a small cat-like head and a dog-like snout, with large forward facing eyes and small, rounded ears. Despite being related to Mongooses, the Fossa remarkably has a number of feline features including curved, retractable claws and slightly webbed feet which both help the Fossa when it is moving about amongst the branches.

Fossa Distribution and Habitat
Like the majority of the animal and plant species that are found on the island of Madagascar, the Fossa is found nowhere else on Earth. They rely on dense, forested areas where there is not only an ample food source but also plenty of space where the Fossa can establish its large territory. Historically, Fossas would have been found in the forest and woodland areas across the island from coastal lowlands to mountainous regions, but are today restricted to a tiny portion of their once vast natural range due to extensive deforestation throughout Madagascar. Growing Human settlements have also severely affected Madagascar's Fossa populations as they are often hunted by farmers who fear for their livestock.

Fossa Behaviour and Lifestyle
The Fossa is a solitary and nocturnal mammal that patrols territories as large as four square kilometres and marks their presence with scent released from their large anal gland. The Fossa spends the vast majority of its life high in the trees but is known to both move about and hunt on the ground as well. They are incredibly agile at both climbing and leaping, which is greatly helped by their long and slender tail and the fact that they move about on the flat soles of their feet means that they have more balance and stability when landing precariously on branches. Although the Fossa is largely nocturnal, they are known to also hunt during the day particularly when there is a lack of food but generally spend the daylight hours resting in a hollow tree, cave or an abandoned termite mound.

Fossa Reproduction and Life Cycles
Like many solitary carnivores, Fossas only come together to mate during the breeding season in September and October. After a gestation period that lasts for around three months, the female Fossa gives birth to usually two cubs that are very underdeveloped at birth and do not open their eyes until they are between two and three weeks old. The young are cared for by their mother and begin to eat solid foods by the time they are 12 weeks old, although they are not weaned for another month. Young Fossas take almost two years to grow to their adult size and then another two until they are able to reproduce themselves. They can live for up to 17 years although many reach much younger ages.

Fossa Diet and Prey
The Fossa is the largest carnivorous mammal on Madagascar and therefore survives by only eating other animals in the surrounding forest. The Fossa has evolved perfectly to the hunting and consumption of Lemurs and in fact, more than half of the Fossa's diet is comprised of them. They will also eat Lizards, Frogs, Rodents, Birds and Reptiles to supplement their diet along with small domestic animal such as pigs and poultry. Hunting under the cover of night means that the dark coat of the Fossa is perfectly camouflaged into the dense surrounding forest so they are able to stalk their prey silently in the trees before leaping powerfully to capture it. The retractable claws of the Fossa means that they are always at their sharpest for catching prey as they are not blunted by being constantly walked on.

Fossa Predators and Threats
Due to the fact that the Fossa is the largest natural predator in Madagascar, it has no predators itself (with the rare exception of being snapped up by a stray Crocodile). Humans pose the biggest threat to the Fossa as they have not only hunted them in fear of their livestock but have also completely decimated 90% of the Fossa's once vast natural range. Deforestation for both the logging of the rare tropical timber and also to clear land for agriculture has led to enormous declines in the wild population numbers. Due to the fact that Fossas not only require large solitary home ranges but they are also relatively slow at developing it is thought that numbers will continue to fall.

Fossa Interesting Facts and Features
The Fossa tends to measure around a metre long with the same length tail on top of that but, in recent years fossils of the now extinct Giant Fossa has been uncovered in the jungles of Madagascar, with the biggest Giant Fossa fossil measured nearly six meters in length and was thought to have weighed around 17 kg! The Fossa is well known for its fierce and dominant approach to hunting as it is extremely rare that its intended prey will successfully escape. The Fossa can run unbelievably quickly and added to its incredible agility in the tree tops, once a meal has been spotted the Fossa is very adept at then catching it.

Fossa Relationship with Humans
When early explorers first arrived on Madagascar there would have been the most incredible array of unique fauna and flora, much of which is now extinct today. Since their arrival Humans have exploited one of the world's largest islands leaving just 10% of the tropical forest cover that would have historically stretched across the country. Land clearance for agriculture such as palm oil plantations and deforestation of the unique tropical trees has led to drastic declines in the population numbers of numerous species, including the elusive Fossa. They are also hunted by farmers who want to protect their livestock and also by some who (unfairly) believe that they are of danger to people.

Fossa Conservation Status and Life Today
Today, the Fossa is listed by the IUCN as being an Endangered animal species and therefore one that is at risk of becoming extinct in its natural environment in the near future. Although national parks and reserves do exist on the island, none are large enough to ensure that a decent sized Fossa population can survive as each individual requires a relatively large territory and there is simply too much competition. There are thought to be less than 2,500 Fossa individuals left in the wild of Madagascar.

Fossa Translations

Català
Civeta de Madagascar
Deutsch
Fanaloka
English
Malagasy Civet
Español
Fossa fossana
Suomi
Fanaloka
Français
Civette malgache
Hrvatski
Madagaskarska cibetka
Magyar
Fanaloka
Italiano
Fossa fossana
日本語
マダガスカルジャコウネコ
Nederlands
Fanaloka
Polski
Fanaloka
Svenska
Fanaloka
中文
馬島靈貓

Fossa Comments

Regan s
"I love fossa's their so cute but why are they endangered I love a-z animals "
fossa
"whos helping them i want to"
Da Booth
"DA FOSSA! DA FOSSA ARE ATTACKING!!! RUN FOR YOUR LIVES!!!!-from dreamworks anamations 2005 film " Madagascar". Still I love this info!!! Thanx a-z animals."
Anoymnumous
"Thee is great but thy know how to make it better. You must make it have better photos, thus making my response better"
emma
"thank for the info"
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First Published: 8th May 2009, Last Updated: 16th February 2017 [View Sources]

Sources:
1. David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2008) Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
2. David Burnie, Kingfisher (2011) The Kingfisher Animal Encyclopedia [Accessed at: 01 Jan 2011]
3. David W. Macdonald, Oxford University Press (2010) The Encyclopedia Of Mammals [Accessed at: 01 Jan 2010]
4. Dorling Kindersley (2006) Dorling Kindersley Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
5. Fossa Conservation (Date Unknown) Available at: [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
6. Fossa Facts (Date Unknown) Available at: [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
7. Fossa Information (Date Unknown) Available at: [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
8. Richard Mackay, University of California Press (2009) The Atlas Of Endangered Species [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]
9. Tom Jackson, Lorenz Books (2007) The World Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 08 May 2009]

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