Guadalupe Bass

Micropterus treculii

Last updated: February 10, 2023
Verified by: AZ Animals Staff
© Clinton & Charles Robertson from Del Rio, Texas & San Marcos, TX, USA / CC BY 2.0 – License / Original

Guadalupe bass are one of the smaller bass species as they are adapted to live in small streams in Texas.


Guadalupe Bass Scientific Classification

Scientific Name
Micropterus treculii

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Guadalupe Bass Conservation Status

Guadalupe Bass Locations

Guadalupe Bass Locations

Guadalupe Bass Facts

Crayfish, shrimp, smaller fish, insect larvae
Name Of Young
Fun Fact
Guadalupe bass are one of the smaller bass species as they are adapted to live in small streams in Texas.
Estimated Population Size
2-4 million
Most Distinctive Feature
Dark vertical stripe on the side
Average Spawn Size
Freshwaters in Texas
Freshwater fish native to Texas

Guadalupe Bass Physical Characteristics

  • Green
  • Olive
Skin Type
6-10 years
1-3 pounds
12-17 inches
Age of Sexual Maturity
1 year

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The Guadalupe bass is a black bass species that is the official state fish of Texas.

Guadalupe Bass Summary

The Guadalupe bass is a black bass species native to Central Texas. It is closely related to the smallmouth bass and spotted bass and can be found in rivers, creeks, lakes, and reservoirs. The Guadalupe bass is the official state fish of Texas. This fish typically reaches around 12 inches long, with the occasional fish coming up to 17 inches. Guadalupe bass is relatively easy to catch and is popular among sports fishermen. They can be caught using various methods, including bait fishing, fly fishing, and spin casting.

5 Incredible Guadalupe Bass Facts

  1. The Guadalupe bass is the official state fish of Texas.
  2. These fish can live up to 6 years in the wild.
  3. They are named after the Guadalupe River, which runs through central Texas.
  4. They can grow up to 17 inches in length.
  5. These fish are known for their aggressive nature and are popular within the fishing world.

Guadalupe Bass Scientific Name

The Guadalupe bass gets its name from the Guadalupe River that runs through Texas, while its scientific name is known as Micropterus treculii. The word Micropterus comes from the Greek word mikros meaning small, and the Greek word pteron meaning wing. When you put it together, Micropterus refers to the specie’s small fin. Although this fish species doesn’t have a small fin, the reason it is named so is that an injured specimen that appeared to have a small separate fin was studied. On the other hand, treculii is named after the person that caught and discovered this fish, Trecul.

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Guadalupe Bass Appearance

The Guadalupe bass is olive-green in color, with dark vertical stripes running down its body. It has large eyes and a small mouth and can grow up to 17 inches long in some cases. This fish is strictly native to Central Texas and can be found in the state’s rivers, streams, and lakes. This fish is smaller than other basses, at only 1-3 pounds heavy, but it is still an impressive fish to many enthusiasts.

Guadalupe Bass Evolution

This species of fish is closely related to the smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), but the two species have several key differences. The Guadalupe bass is generally smaller than the smallmouth, with adults reaching a length of around 12 inches. They are also darker in color, with a brown or green back and sides and a white belly. The most distinguishing feature of this fish is the dark vertical stripe that runs along its side, from just behind the gill plate down to the tail.

The Guadalupe bass has undergone several changes over the years, most notably in its size and color – the fish has grown larger over time, and it has become darker in color. These changes are thought to be due to several factors, including changes in the environment and the introduction of new predators into the area. Despite these changes, the Guadalupe bass remains a widespread species in Texas.

Guadalupe Bass Behavior

The Guadalupe bass is a predatory fish that feeds on other smaller fish, crustaceans, and insects. This fish is a very aggressive fish, and it is known for being a fierce predator. It will eat about anything that can fit into its mouth, including frogs, insects, and even small mammals in some cases. It is also known for being a very territorial fish and it will often fight with other bass species over territory. This bass is an excellent game fish and fishermen prize it for its strong fighting ability.

Guadalupe Bass Habitat

Typically this fish inhabits streams and rivers with clear, cool water and rocky substrates. They are often found near undercut banks, submerged logs, or other structures that provide cover from predators. Due to their limited range and habitats vulnerable to degradation, this fish is considered a species of concern by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. However, they are still relatively abundant in many parts of their range.

Guadalupe Bass Diet

The Guadalupe bass feed primarily on crayfish. However, they are known to consume other small invertebrates and fish when available. Their diet consists mainly of freshwater shrimp, amphipods, isopods, and midge larvae. Invertebrates make up approximately 90% of their diet by volume.

What Eats the Guadalupe Bass?

It is preyed on and eaten by various animals, including larger bass and birds.

What Does the Guadalupe Bass Eat?

This fish primarily eats crayfish, shrimp, smaller fish, and insect larvae.

Guadalupe Bass Predators and Threats

This species is an important species for both recreational and commercial fisheries. The species has many potential predators, including other fish, birds, mammals, and reptiles. Other predators of the Guadalupe bass include the largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, and channel catfish. These fish are more significant in size than the Guadalupe bass and can easily prey on them.

However, human activity poses the biggest threat to this population. Factors such as water pollution, habitat loss/degradation, and overfishing have all contributed to declines in the population.

Another significant threat to the Guadalupe bass is hybridization with the smallmouth bass. Despite these threats, the Guadalupe bass remains one of the most popular sportfish in Texas. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) has implemented several management strategies to conserve and rebuild the population. These include fishing gear/methods regulations, catch limits, size limits, seasonal closures, and stocking programs. This fish is an integral part of the ecosystem. Unfortunately, it faces many threats.

Guadalupe Bass Reproduction

The Guadalupe bass fish can spawn in late spring and early summer when water temperatures are between 60-80 degrees Fahrenheit. The female will lay between 400 and 9,000 eggs in a nest the male has constructed. Once the eggs have been laid, the male will chase away the female and guard the nest until the fry hatch and can swim on their own.

There are several reasons why the nest is beneficial for the eggs. First, the nest provides shelter from predators and other dangers. Second, it helps to keep the eggs oxygenated and at a consistent temperature. Third, it gives the fry a place to hide when they first hatch. Overall, building a nest is an integral part of the reproduction process for male Guadalupe bass. By doing so, they are increasing the chances that their offspring will survive and thrive.

Guadalupe Bass Babies

When the eggs hatch, the babies are called fry. These fry are tiny and spend most of their time hiding in the vegetation. They will only come out to feed when it is safe. When they first start feeding, they eat small insects and other invertebrates. As they grow older and larger, they will begin to eat fish too. The fry grows quickly and can reach adulthood and sexual maturity within a year. Once they reach adulthood, they will start breeding themselves, and the cycle will continue.

Guadalupe Bass Lifespan

The average lifespan of this fish is about 6 years, although some individuals have been known to live up to 10 years. Several factors can contribute to their lifespan, including water temperature, food availability, and predation pressure. For instance, if the water temperature is too high or low, it can stress the fish and shorten their lifespan. Additionally, if there is not enough food available, the fish may not be able to get the nutrients they need and die prematurely. Lastly, if there is a lot of predation pressure from other animals, this fish may need more time to survive and reach their potential lifespan.

Overall, the Guadalupe bass is a relatively short-lived species compared to other fish. However, many things can affect their lifespan, so it is essential to consider all these factors when determining how long a particular fish will live. Some threats to this fish species include, but are not limited to:

  1. Predators
  2. Hybridization
  3. Habitat loss
  4. Human interference

Guadalupe Bass Population

According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, the Guadalupe bass is one of the most popular sportfish in Texas. The estimated population numbers of these fish vary depending on which body of water they are found in. However, overall, it is estimated that there are between 2 million and 4 million adult Guadalupe bass in Texas waters. This information is vital because it helps us understand how this species is doing in terms of population numbers. It also helps us determine whether we must take measures to protect this species from becoming endangered or extinct.

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About the Author

Lev is a writer at AZ Animals who primarily covers topics on animals, geography, and plants. He has been writing for more than 4 years and loves researching topics and learning new things. His three biggest loves in the world are music, travel, and animals. He has his diving license and loves sea creatures. His favorite animal in the world is the manta ray.

Guadalupe Bass FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

Are Guadalupe bass carnivores, herbivores, or omnivores?

The Guadalupe bass is considered a carnivorous fish as it eats other animals.

Is the Guadalupe bass monogamous?

The Guadalupe bass is not considered a monogamous animal as it breeds via spawning.

Which countries are the Guadalupe bass found in?

The Guadalupe bass is found in the United States, primarily in Texas.

What is the average lifespan of a Guadalupe bass?

The average lifespan of the Guadalupe bass is approximately 6 years of age.

Thank you for reading! Have some feedback for us? Contact the AZ Animals editorial team.

  1. Texas Parks and Wildlife, Available here:
  2. Best Fishing in America/Richard Corrigan, Available here:
  3. Science for a Changing World, Available here:

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