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Platypus

Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus)Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus)
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Platypus Facts

Kingdom:
Five groups that classify all living things
Animalia
Phylum:
A group of animals within the animal kingdom
Chordata
Class:
A group of animals within a pylum
Mammalia
Order:
A group of animals within a class
Monotremata
Family:
A group of animals within an order
Ornithorhynchidae
Genus:
A group of animals within a family
Ornithorhynchus
Scientific Name:
The name of the animal in science
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Common Name:
Most widely used name for this species
Platypus
Other Name(s):
Different names for this animal
Duck-Billed Platypus
Group:
The domestic group such as cat or dog
Mammal
Number Of Species:
The total number of recorded species
1
Location:
The place where something is found
Eastern Australia and Tasmania
Habitat:
The specific area where the animal lives
Freshwater rivers and streams
Colour:
The colour of the animal's coat or markings
Dark brown, light brown and silver
Skin Type:
The protective layer of the animal
Fur
Size (H):
How long (L) or tall (H) the animal is
39cm - 60cm (15.4in - 23.6in)
Weight:
The measurement of how heavy the animal is
0.7kg - 2.4kg (1.5lbs - 5.3lbs)
Top Speed:
The fastest recorded speed of the animal
35kph (22mph)
Diet:
What kind of foods the animal eats
Carnivore
Prey:
The food that the animal gains energy from
Insect larvae, tadpoles, small fish
Predators:
Other animals that hunt and eat the animal
Birds of prey, dogs, crocodiles
Lifestyle:
Whether the animal is solitary or sociable
Nocturnal
Group Behaviour:
How the animal behaves in a group
Solitary
Lifespan:
How long the animal lives for
9 - 12 years
Age Of Sexual Maturity:
When the animal can produce offspring
2 years
Gestation Period:
The time from conception to birth
2 - 3 weeks
Average Litter Size:
The average number of babies born at once
2
Name Of Young:
The name given to the offspring
Baby Platypus
Age Of Weaning:
The age when the mother stops providing milk for her young
5 months
Conservation Status:
The likelihood of the animal becoming extinct
Near Threatened
Estimated Population Size:
How many of this animal are thought to exist
300,000
Biggest Threat:
The largest danger to this animal
Habitat loss
Most Distinctive Feature:
Characteristics unique to this animal
Bill that looks like the beak of a duck
Fun Fact:
An exciting thing about this animal
The first specimen seen in Europe was thought to be fake!

Platypus Location

Map of Platypus Locations
Map of Oceania

Platypus

Platypus Classification and Evolution

The Platypus (also commonly known as the Duck-Billed Platypus) is a small species of semi-aquatic mammal indigenous to the eastern coast of Australia. Known for it's unique looking appearance, the Platypus belongs to a small group of mammals called monotremes, of which there are only three species. The Platypus along with the Short-Nosed Echidna and Long-Nosed Echidna are the only mammals that are known to lay eggs instead of giving birth to live young, making them truly unique and leading to them not being recognised as true mammals for a long time. They do however, possess and feed their young using their mammary glands - the essential characteristic from which the class Mammalia takes its name. When the first Platypus specimen arrived in Britain in 1798, it was thought to be a hoax as the Platypus looks like it is a mixture of a mammal and a bird.

Platypus Anatomy and Appearance

The Platypus has a small, streamlined body that is covered in short and dense waterproof fur that varies in colour from dark brown on their back with a light brown or silver underside and a plum coloured middle. They have short limbs with partially webbed hind feet and a broad, flat tail (which resembles the tail of a beaver) that are used as rudders when underwater. Their front feet are fully webbed and help to propel the Platypus through the water and can be turned back when on land, exposing their large nails to aid them when walking or burrowing into the river banks. One of the Platypus's most distinctive and unusual features is the large, broad bill that looks like the beak of a duck. The bill of the Platypus is soft and pliable and covered in a multitude of sensory receptors that help them to detect the small electrical signals emitted from their prey species. Their bills are very touch-sensitive and are often used to probe the mud on the riverbed for the small insect larvae which they most commonly feed on. Males are larger in size than females and possess a poison spur on the ankle of each hind foot that is used to drive away rival males during the breeding season.

Platypus Distribution and Habitat

The Platypus is found on the east coast of Australia from Cooktown in Queensland in the north, all the way down to the island of Tasmania in the south and has also been introduced to Kangaroo Island in southern Australia. They inhabit streams and rivers, and some lakes that have suitable banks for burrowing in and a permanent source of water. They are highly suited to their semi-aquatic environment and possess the best physical characteristics for dealing with life both in and out of the water, with their dense fur helping to keep their warm bodies insulated even in the coldest of water. Their home ranges vary depending on the specific river system and can vary in size from less than a kilometre to more than 7 kilometres, and overlap those ranges of other individuals despite their solitary nature. The Platypus is thought to be so successful as an animal species as they are able to survive in such a niche environment in the world's driest continent.

Platypus Behaviour and Lifestyle

The Platypus is a solitary animal that despite occupying overlapping home ranges, only come together during the breeding season or when a mother is looking after her young. They are nocturnal hunters that are able to close their eyes, ears and nostrils when diving down to the river bed in search of food. During the day, they rest in burrows that are dug into the river banks using their long, broad nails and powerful front legs. There are two different types of burrow used by the Platypus; one for resting and one for incubating their eggs and nursing their young. Individual animals may use a number of resting burrows within their home range. Typically resting burrows are around 5 meters in length but incubation burrows can reach up to 30 meters long and can have more than one nesting chamber.

Platypus Reproduction and Life Cycles

Breeding takes place between late winter and early spring (July - October) in the water, with males using their poison spurs to deliver a painful dose of poison to their rivals. As part of their courtship ritual, females carry bundles of wet leaves to their incubation chamber at the end of their burrow and plug the tunnel with soil. After a gestation period of between two and three weeks, the female Platypus lays between one and three small, spherical eggs that are only 1.5cm in size and are soft and leathery. After an incubation period of around 10 days, the young hatch out in a very undeveloped state measuring barely 1cm in length, blind, hairless and have blunt buds for limbs. They are nursed by their mother in the incubation chamber for up to 5 months suckling on the milk on her fur that is secreted by her mammary glands. A young Platypus is lighter in colour than older individuals and 85% of their adult size when they first become independent. Platypuses tend to live for around 10 years in the wild but can reach ages of 17 or more when in captivity.

Platypus Diet and Prey

The Platypus is a small, carnivorous mammal whose diet is almost solely comprised of bottom-dwelling aquatic creatures. Young insects (larvae) make up the majority of their diet along with small freshwater crustaceans, snails, tadpoles and small fish. Due to the fact that their eyes, ears and nostrils are closed when they are underwater, the Platypus relies solely on its bill in order to find food. The small sensory receptors that cover it can detect the electrical signals created by the movement of creatures in the water and the fact that it is highly tactile means that they can also feel prey species when probing the mud on the river bed. When hunting the Platypus stores food in cheek pouches located on the sides of the mouth that is then ground up using the horny ridges that they have instead of teeth.

Platypus Predators and Threats

The Platypus is a highly specialised animal that has evolved to survive and thrive in very specific environments, and protects itself from predators when resting during the day by hiding in their river-bank burrows. However, their small size means that they are preyed upon by numerous animal species throughout their home ranges. Their most common predators include birds of prey such as hawks and eagles, large mammals including dingoes, dogs, cats and Tasmanian devils, and reptiles such as snakes, monitor lizards and crocodiles. Despite the fact that they are widespread and considered locally common in places, they were hunted to near extinction in the 18th century which has led to reductions and fragmentation of Platypus populations in some areas. Due to their very specific evolution, they are also highly susceptible to changes in their natural habitats.

Platypus Interesting Facts and Features

The Platypus is a species of monotreme, which is a small group of egg-laying mammals of which are they are only three species. Not considered as true mammals by some scientists, monotremes are thought to be the most primitive group of mammals having evolved around 200 million years ago. However, despite having evolved before other mammal species, monotremes are by no means primitive and possess some highly developed features that are not found in any other group of mammals, such as the poisonous spur found on the hind ankles of males. Unlike other mammals, they do not have a birth canal and instead their eggs travel through the same bodily opening as their urine and faeces and terminate in a single bodily opening known as the cloaca. This is a feature that monotremes share with both birds and reptiles with the name monotreme actually meaning "one-holed animal".

Platypus Relationship with Humans

With the settlement of Europeans in the 18th century came a great change for Platypus populations along Australia's eastern coast. The Platypus was hunted extensively for it's soft, thick fur until it became banned in 1900 which allowed populations to begin to recover. Growing human settlements and changes to the freshwater conditions caused by pollution has had a negative impact on Platypus populations particularly in certain areas, where they have suffered from habitat loss.

Platypus Conservation Status and Life Today

Until 2014, the Platypus was considered to be an animal that was of Least Concern from extinction by the IUCN. However, due to the constant decline in their population numbers they are considered to be a species that is now Near Threatened. With up to 300,000 adult individuals remaining in the wild, the Platypus is becoming increasingly threatened throughout its natural range. A number of captive breeding programmes have been established to try and boost Platypus population numbers in certain areas.

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Platypus Translations

English
Platypus
Français
Ornithorynque
Deutsch
Schnabeltier
български език
птицечовка
Bosanski
Čudnovati kljunar
Català
ornitorinc
Cesky
ptakopysk
Dansk
Næbdyr
Esperanto
Ornitorinko
Español
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Eesti
nokkloom
Suomi
Vesinokkaeläin
Galego
Ornitorrinco
עִבְרִית
ברווזן
Hrvatski
Čudnovati kljunaš
Magyar
Kacsacsőrű emlős
Bahasa Indonesia
Platipus
Italiano
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
日本語
カモノハシ
Latina
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
Bahasa Melayu
Platipus
Nederlands
vogelbekdier
Polski
Dziobak australijski
Português
Ornitorrinco
Româna
Ornitorinc
Svenska
Näbbdjur
Türkçe
Ornitorenk
Tiếng Việt
Thú mỏ vịt
中文
鸭嘴兽

Platypus Comments

Unknown Person ;3
"I was doing an assignment on Platypuses in Language. However, I needed to do research, so I chose this site. This website was very helpful! Thank You!"
lili kitty
"i love this animal im doing a presentation on it and this site helped me"
Eli
"platipie are amazing!!!"
Kate
"I KNOW RIGHT???!!!!"
Cameron
"WHY ARE MALE PLATYPUSES VENOMOUS???!!!"
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First Published: 10th November 2008, Last Updated: 21st October 2019

Sources:
1. David Burnie, Dorling Kindersley (2008) Illustrated Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 10 Nov 2008]
2. David Burnie, Kingfisher (2011) The Kingfisher Animal Encyclopedia [Accessed at: 01 Jan 2011]
3. David W. Macdonald, Oxford University Press (2010) The Encyclopedia Of Mammals [Accessed at: 01 Jan 2010]
4. Dorling Kindersley (2006) Dorling Kindersley Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 10 Nov 2008]
5. Richard Mackay, University of California Press (2009) The Atlas Of Endangered Species [Accessed at: 01 Jan 2009]
6. Tom Jackson, Lorenz Books (2007) The World Encyclopedia Of Animals [Accessed at: 10 Nov 2008]
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