Copperheads and coral snakes are two venomous North-American snakes. Copperheads are solitary pit vipers known to bite more people than any other snake in the USA, despite their non-aggressive natures. Coral snakes, on the other hand, are elapids subdivided into two groups: Old and New World snakes.
Since both snakes are commonly spotted all around North America, a lot of people confuse both species which leads to quite a bit of misinformation. Copperheads and coral snakes might have some similarities, but they are very different snakes. This article explores these snakes, taking a special look at their venom. Let’s get right into it! Copperhead vs Coral snakes: what are the main differences?
Comparing a Copperhead and a Coral Snake
|Snake Family||Pit viper||Elapid|
|Habitat||North America||North America|
|Subspecies||Previously 5, currently 2 – Eastern copperhead and broad-banded copperhead||16 species of Old World, 65+ species of New World|
|Size||0.2 – 0.7 pounds (3.2 – 11.2 ounces)|
20-37 inches long
|0.5-5 pounds (8- 80 ounces)|
11-47.5 inches long
|Description||Copper or orange-red triangular heads|
Pale brown to pinkish-brown background skin
Hourglass-shaped markings that are colored copper to reddish-brown
Dorsal and ventral scales
Mostly tricolored (bicolor occurs rarely)
Various combinations of yellow, black, white, and red rings
|Hunting style||Heat-sensing/ infrared pits that help them detect the movement and presence of prey.|
Stalk and ambush hunters.
They subdue with venom before swallowing their prey whole.
Diurnal in the spring and fall, nocturnal during the summer.
They chew on their victims for a few seconds to inject venom then they let them go.
Diurnal in the spring and fall, nocturnal during the summer.
Toads, small mammals, frogs, lizards, rats, small snakes, and even other copperheads
Toads, small mammals, frogs, lizards, rats, small snakes, and even other coral snakes
|Bite||Extremely painful bites|
Temporal damage to tissue
Bites are fairly common as people unknowingly step on/near them a lot
|Bite marks are easily missed and often do no obvious damage to tissue. |
They are often painless
Bites are rare
|Venom composition||Primarily hemotoxic||Primarily neurotoxic|
|Symptoms of envenomation||Extreme pain, severe nausea, and swelling.||Vomiting, drooping eyes & slurred speech, severe nausea, paresthesia, paralysis, death.|
|Maximum venom yield||Eastern copperhead: 85mg||Eastern coral snakes: 38mg|
|Average venom yield||Eastern copperhead: 26mg||Eastern coral snakes: 10-12mg|
|Lethal venom yield||Eastern coral snakes: 85-100mg||Eastern coral snakes: 4-6mg|
|Anti-venom?||Yes.||Yes, but it is no longer being produced due to low demand.|
|Temperament||They freeze when humans come near. This causes people to unknowingly step on/near them a lot and get bitten||Non-aggressive|
Will always try to escape before defending itself
Key Differences Between a Copperhead and a Coral Snake
The main differences between a coral snake and a copperhead lie in their size, taxonomy, venom yield, fang type, and diet among others.
Copperhead vs Coral Snake: Taxonomy
Copperheads are venomous pit vipers. This means that they have infrared pits which they use to spot the presence or movement of their living prey. They also have long solenoglyphous fangs that work very similarly to hypodermic needles (the common types used in hospitals).
Coral snakes are venomous elapids and consequently have short and fixed fangs at the front of their mouths. Due to this, coral snakes must chew on their victims to envenomate them.
Copperhead vs Coral Snake: Description
Both copperheads and coral snakes vary in length depending on the subspecies. However, the shortest coral snake is the Sonoran coral snake and it can be as short as 11 inches. The longest coral snake recorded was a 47.5-inch eastern coral snake. Copperheads, on the other hand, measure anywhere from 20-37 inches.
Copperheads have copper or orange-red colored triangular heads. This unique feature is where their name is derived from. Coral snakes, however, have round heads and round pupils in contrast to copperheads’ elliptical pupils.
Coral snakes are usually tri-colored with various yellow, black, white, and red ring patterns. Some specimens are bicolored but this is rare.
Copperhead vs Coral Snake: Venom
Copperheads have hemotoxic venom which attacks the muscle tissue. However, if treated, the effects of the copperhead’s venom are reversible but that is not to say that they aren’t deadly. The fatality rate for these snakes is about 0.01%.
Coral snakes have neurotoxic venom which is one of the fastest-acting venom. Neurotoxins attack the nervous system and stop the transmission of signals. This leads to paralysis and can cause death. Coral snakes are more venomous than copperheads. However, they must actually chew on their victims to get the venom in. If a person is able to pull away immediately they feel the bite (which happens more often than not), it will stop envenomation and prevent the venom from getting deep enough to do lasting damage.
Copperhead vs Coral Snake: Bite
Copperheads make up for their lack of strong venom with excruciatingly painful bites. If a bitten person can get treatment in time, the worst part of the experience will possibly be the bite. This isn’t the case with coral snakes. Their bites are sometimes painless and may not even leave a mark.
A copperhead’s bite is often accompanied by nausea and swelling but coral snake bites have symptoms that are a bit direr. Since neurotoxins cause paralysis of muscles, the venom can affect the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the breathing muscle and paralysis of this muscle will make the victim unable to breathe. This, of course, will result in death.
Copperhead vs Coral Snake: Venom Yield
Copperhead snakes have a maximum venom yield of 85 mg, while coral snakes have a maximum yield of 38 mg. Even though copperheads’ fangs hold more venom, what really matters is the potency. It takes 85 to 100 mg of copperhead venom to kill a healthy human.
Most copperhead bites are dry bites but when they do inject venom, they inject an average of 26mg, which is not nearly enough to kill a human. However, sometimes, copperheads inject higher than their average yield. This, combined with victims refusing to see doctors due to underestimation of the venom is why 0.01% of people bitten by copperheads lose their lives.
Coral snakes have a maximum venom yield of 38 mg but only need 4-6 mg to kill a healthy person, thus making their venom strong enough to kill five people in a single bite. Without anti-venom and treatment, a large number of bite cases would result in death.
If you are bitten by a snake, get immediate emergency help. Do not attempt to treat yourself in any way if you want to give yourself the best chance at survival. It is also important to remember that despite their deadly venom, snakes help to keep several pest populations in check. They are important to the ecosystem and to every one of us indirectly.
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