Two-third of our crop species around the globe are dependent on animals for survival. These creatures transfer pollen between female and male flower parts. Among the creatures we need for the production are butterflies, birds, and bats. But the most important pollinator in our ecosystems is a unique insect we spend more time running from.
The Bumble Bee
With their stubby, short, acrylic-like wings and bulbous fuzzy, multi-colored bodies, the bumble bee hovers in the air, their wings flapping at an unsettling 130 times per second. The insect swirls around us as if it’s looking for a reason to attack.
Larger than typical bees, the bumble bee isn’t in the business of processing honey the way their cousins do.
The populace is critical to pollination. Otherwise, our crops would die.
There are almost 300 species of bumble bee and they come in a variety of sizes. The largest is the queen of the Bombus dahlbomii.
Located in South America’s southern temperate forests, this queen can be 1.6 inches long. That’s almost four times larger than the largest bumble bee in the States (where a queen might hit 0.9). The world’s biggest bumble bees are in Chile and Argentina.
Worker bees are always smaller than the queen.
Bumble bees often nest near ground surfaces. They make homes in dead leaves, piles of wood, and piles of compost. These bees also use hollow logs and grass tussocks. The creatures have even taken refuge in abandoned rodent tunnels. But you can also find bumble bees in vacant bird nests and birdhouses.
What the Bumble Bee Does
Bumble bees are the construction workers of the pollinate world. And they are experts at it. When the insect settles on a plant, the rapid beating of their wings and bodies creates a vibration in the flower. This in turn encourages the flower to release pollen.
We call the process buzz pollination. The process helps the plant produce more fruit.
5 Facts About the Bumble Bee
The bumble bee is easily misunderstood as a predatory creature looking to bite. It’s not so. Here are some other interesting facts about bumble bees.
1. Only New Queens Survive the Cold Months
The colonies die in the late fall while the newly-born queens hibernate throughout the fall and winter. The queens awaken in the spring and lay eggs to create a new colony.
2. Bumble Bees are Social Creatures That Live in Communities
The vast majority of bee species actually don’t form hives or follow queens. They are usually solitary creatures. We tend to think all bees form communities because of the honey bee. Honey bees and the bumble bee are rare species that develop hives for shelter and family.
3. Bumble Bees are Big Business!
Bumble bees are a commercial commodity. They maintain healthy ecosystems as pollinators and without them, a lot of food markets would likely be in jeopardy. Professionally managed hives are a huge business as there is a strong demand for bumble bees to pollinate a variety of agricultural environments.
4. Bumble Bees Keep It Hot
The insects’ size generates heat. So, unlike honey bees, the bumble bee can venture into the world during cooler periods of the day and get to work. They can also climb to higher altitudes.
5. Bumble Bees Face Extinction
Several species in this family are declining rapidly and the status of many others remains in question. In the last few years, the yellow-banded, western, and Franklin bumble bee have largely vanished. The rusty-patched species is now officially endangered. Near a third of North America’s bumble bees are diminishing.
Like a great many endangered animals, bumble bees face pesticides, habitat loss, climate change, and disease. All the result of humankind’s interference in natural ecosystems.
You Can Help
If we do work outdoors, even in our small gardens, we can help sustain bumble bee life.
Provide Nector and Pollen
During the early spring up until the late fall, bumble bees need pollen- and nectar-producing flowers. These resources are vital food for adult bees and their larvae. We want plants native to particular ecosystems, regions, and habitats that have had no human interference or involvement. These plants evolved alongside native bees.
If you plant native plants for blooming in spring, summer, and fall, bumble bees have three seasons of food.
Give Bumble Bees Nesting Opportunities
Bumble bees nest in underground holes, abandoned rodent tunnels, empty bird nests, and birdhouses, compost piles, hollow logs, grass tussocks, and spaces under rocks. If you have these, consider leaving them intact.
Protect Habitats for Hibernation
Queens hibernate below the ground’s surface and in small holes. Your raking, mowing, and tiling risk eliminating the next generation. Hold off these activities until early spring. Set mower blades at high safe levels. Leave leaves where they fall. The natural mulch is a perfect home for pollinators like bumble bees.
Give Up Pesticides
Steer clear of herbicides and insecticides. Avoid systemic like neonicotinoids which seep into the vascular plant systems. The sustained seepage leaves pollinators exposed to poison long after you apply the product.
Bumble bee stings are rare. They are easy-going and peaceful and are far more interested in pollinating than fighting.
Males, or drones, don’t sting. They do not have stingers. Only females do. But they will not attack unless their hive is at risk or they feel threatened.
The sting is not the same as the honeybee. The bumble bee stinger has no barb. That means the bumble bee doesn’t detach. It can pull the stinger out. So while the honeybee only stings once, the bumble bee can sting multiple times.
What Happens After a Bumble Bee Sting?
The venom in the stinger contains elements that have a direct impact on blood vessels. Usually, the reaction is redness, serious itching, and painful swelling. If the sting takes place on looser skin, the swelling can be pronounced.
In most cases, the systems tend to go away soon or only last a couple of days.
A sting to the throat or in the mouth is a serious matter. Swelling can lead to suffocation.
Though extremely rare, some individuals can have a bad reaction to bumble bee venom. Often, it’s due to the IgE antibodies. These compounds are immune system protectors. Typically located in small amounts of blood, higher amounts may be a sign of overreaction to allergens.
People with saturated IgE may show a negative reaction. There may be no reaction in the first sting. That’s due to the unlikeliness there are antibodies before the first sting. But the next sting is likely to trigger the reaction.
The impact can be significant. Under the right circumstances, entire limbs get affected. Symptoms include itching and nettle rash. Sometimes there’s swelling of the neck and face, diarrhea, vomiting, sweating, disorientation, and the shakes.
Allergic reactions to bumble bee stings worsen with each subsequent sting.
There are medicines, such as beta-blockers, aspirin, or ACE-inhibitors, that can worsen the reaction to a bumble bee sting. Other threats include alcohol consumption and extensive physical activity. Anyone with an increased chance of getting bitten by a bumble bee should avoid these things. They should also get tested to know their IgE levels.
The bumble bee and honeybee have albumen structure similarities. So individuals will likely be allergic to both stings. The medical community calls this condition a cross reaction.
Ways to Avoid Bumble bee Stings
Bumble bees are peaceful creatures. They hover but they actually mean no harm until they feel provoked. Here are ways to prevent getting stung.
- Do not be aggressive around bumble bees
- Avoid disturbing bumble bees
- Do not strike a bumble bee flying around you
- Manage bumble bee hives correctly
- Do not bump hives
- Stay away from perfumed smells
Ways to Deal With Stings
Here are several measures for preventing and dealing with possible stings.
- Hang notification warnings for people who may be allergic
- Keep antihistamines for anyone who’s stung
- Keep injectors of adrenaline or adrenaline injection ampoules within reach
- Know the nearest doctor or hospital location for emergency purposes
While it’s easier said than done, if there is an allergic reaction, remain calm. Panic only makes things worse. Get to the nearest medical facility as quickly as you can.
Explain what happened and let the clinicians know if you’re dizzy or feeling other abnormalities. Most reactions are often treated with antihistamines, adrenaline, or corticosteroids. If there’s a respiratory issue, they may implement an epinephrine injection or adrenaline inhaler.
If cardiovascular problems are resulting from a sting, get the stung individual to a hospital as quickly as you can.
General allergic reactions to bumble bee stings are manageable with a desensitization cure. This is a specialized process that shows the body how to progressively become accustomed to a bumble bee’s venom. The tolerance training requires a unique set of procedures available only in special centers. To find one, you should consult with a doctor.
Next Up: How Long Do Butterflies Live?