Discover the 6 Countries That Border the Black Sea

Written by Patrick MacFarland
Updated: September 29, 2023
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The Black Sea is a sea between Europe and Asia. The Danube, Don, and Dnieper Rivers provide the sea with its water and it drains into the Mediterranean Sea. The Black Sea has been an important body of water for several civilizations and countries throughout history.

The Black Sea has been important in terms of naval power for both the Russian and Ottoman Empires for hundreds of years. It was the site of various naval battles during both world wars. In recent times, it has been the site of a few battles in the Russia-Ukraine War, specifically on Snake Island and several other key areas.

The Black Sea is also a route many smugglers of illegal goods take to reach land in Russia, Western Asia, or Eastern Europe. The sea fuels the economies of the six countries bordering the Black Sea. Turkish fishing is an important part of the economy and catches 300,000 tons of anchovies every year. Turkey has also started drilling for natural gas after they discovered it in 2020. Russia carries out offshore drilling in the Black Sea. Lastly, tourism is an important mechanism in driving the economies of these countries.

Today, the Black Sea remains an important military and economic body of water for the six countries that surround it. Let’s explore those six countries that border the Black Sea.


Plovdiv ,Bulgaria

Bulgaria is the oldest country in Europe and its name has not changed.

©Sergej Razvodovskij/

The country of Bulgaria has a population of 6.4 million. Historically, it has been an important country for trade between Europe and Asia. The Ottoman Empire controlled Bulgaria for several centuries until it became fully independent in 1908. After World War II, Bulgaria became a Soviet-controlled independent state. Since 1991, after the fall of communism, Bulgaria has been a democracy and a part of the European Union.

Geographically, Bulgaria has a diverse topography, with lowlands, mountains, and valleys. Because of the diversity of its geography, the climatic regions in the country are also vast — ranging from Mediterranean weather in the south and a more continental climate in the north. Bulgaria is one of the most biodiverse countries in Europe, hosting over 40,000 species of animals and plants.


Saarbrucken bridge and Sameba Cathedral in Tbilisi, Georgia

Georgia is home to the deepest cave in the world.

©Ozbalci/iStock via Getty Images

Geographically, Georgia is a mountainous country located in the Caucuses. There are however lowlands, marshes, forested areas, and plains. Although Georgia is a small country, its climate is also diverse, ranging from continental to subtropical. There are thousands of species of animals in plants located in Georgia because of its diverse topography.

Georgia won independence after World War I but the Soviet Union annexed it in 1922. It was a Soviet-controlled independent state until its independence in 1991. Afterward, there was economic strife and political strife, but things have stabilized in recent years. 


Night skyline of Cluj Napoca, Romania as seen from the Citadel Hill.

The tallest wooden church in the world is located in Romania.

©Mihai-Bogdan Lazar/

Romania has a diverse landscape, roughly divided into a mountainous region, a hilly and plains area, and a forested region. These regions ensure there are four climatic seasons throughout the year. Its land is fertile, which makes it great for farming. Wildlife in Romania is diverse, with thousands of species of plants and animals living in the country.

With a population of 19 million, Romania was part of many empires throughout history. Most recently it was part of the Ottoman Empire for four centuries until Romania became independent in 1877. It sided with the Axis Powers during World War II and subsequently became a Soviet-controlled independent state after the war. Romania became an independent democracy after the fall of communism.


View of Moscow, Russia

Russia has the longest railway in the world called the Trans-Siberian Railway, from Moscow to Vladivostok.

©scaliger/ via Getty Images

The Russian Federation is a vast country that spans two continents — Europe and Asia — with many types of geography and climates. Much of the country’s area is uninhabited because as much as 75% of Russia is covered by tundra and forest, known as the region of Siberia. The nation has several mountain ranges, with one of the largest being the Caucasus Mountains which stretches from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Russia is also home to some of Europe’s largest lakes, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. Some of the wildlife in Russia includes the Siberian tiger, polar bears, and snow leopards.

Historically, Russia has been a political force to be reckoned with. The Russian Tsar ruled its people with an iron fist until a revolution took place and the Bolsheviks took over, killing Tsar Nicholas and his family in 1918. The USSR was established and for more than 70 years, they also ruled with an iron fist. After the fall of communism, Russia had a period of democracy, but Vladimir Putin now rules Russia as an authoritarian state.


Aerial drone view of the Suleymaniye Mosque, huge Ottoman imperial mosque in Istanbul, Turkey.

Turkey is located on two continents: Europe and Asia, just like Russia.

©nantonov/iStock via Getty Images

The country of Turkey has a population of 85.2 million and it is in both the European and Asian continents. The city of Turkey, which is the largest city in the nation, is split in two with the Bosphorus Strait running between it. There are seven regions in Turkey, each unique in their geography. Because of its location in Europe and Asia, many species make Turkey their home. Its climatic regions ensure that there are more than 80,000 species of animals living in the country.

Turkey became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1453 and for more than 450 years, they ruled the land until its dissolution after World War I. Turkey claimed independence from Greece in 1920 and it officially became a republic in 1923.


View of Kiev Pechersk Lavra and Dnepr river. Kiev, Ukraine.

Ukraine is known as the breadbasket of Europe because it is one of the top producers of wheat and grain in the world.

©ChamilleWhite/iStock via Getty Images

With a population of over 43 million, Ukraine is an agricultural fertile area of Europe. Throughout history, the land of Ukraine has always been controlled by other empires, whether it was the Lithuanians, the Mongols, or the Russians. In 1991, Ukraine gained independence from the Soviet Union and continued on a path of democracy. Things took a turn for the worse when Russia invaded Ukraine in 2022, and to this day, Ukrainians are involved in conflict with Russia.

Geographically, Ukraine is a flat country with plains and steppes. There are mountains only in the western part of the nation. There are also dense forests scattered throughout Ukraine. The country is home to various animals like wolves, beech martens, and foxes. Ukraine’s largest river, the Dnieper, provides water to the Black Sea.

Black Sea Facts

Aerial view of Yalta embankment from drone, old Lighthouse on pier, sea coast landscape and city buildings on mountains, beautiful winter panorama of European resort, Crimea

The Yalta Conference between Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin took place in the Black Sea resort city of Yalta in February 1945.

©DedMityay/iStock via Getty Images

  • Maximum length: 730 miles (1,175 km)
  • Surface Area: 168,500 square miles (436,402 square km)
  • Average Depth: 4,111 feet (1,253 meters)
  • Maximum Depth: 7,257 feet (2,212 meters)
  • Water Volume: 131,200 cubic miles (547,000 cubic km)


The countries that border the Black Sea include Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey, and Ukraine. The Black Sea is an important sea for all countries that border it. It is a naval and economic driver for them. However, this has also provided tension between those countries.

Most recently, the Black Sea has been the site of several naval battles between Russia and Ukraine. Russia invaded Ukraine in February 2022, and Ukraine has fought against the conquerors ever since. The Ukrainian military sunk a Russian naval cruiser. An American drone also plummeted into the depths of the Black Sea. There is hope, however, that the fighting will stop and a truce can be called.

The photo featured at the top of this post is © GizemG/

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About the Author

Patrick Macfarland is a writer at A-Z Animals primarily covering travel, geography, and history. Patrick has been writing for more than 10 years. In the past, he has been a teacher and a political candidate. He holds a Bachelor's Degree in Political Science from SDSU and a Master's Degree in European Union Studies from CIFE. From San Diego, California, Patrick loves to travel and try new recipes to cook.

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