Discover 10 Biggest Types Of Grouper Fish

Written by Ella Coppola
Updated: July 13, 2023
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Grouper is a type of saltwater fish that belongs to the family Serranidae. Grouper characteristics include their large size, powerful bodies, and delicious taste. You can find grouper species worldwide, primarily in tropical and subtropical waters. In addition, you can discover Groupers in different regions of America, including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea. Both commercial and recreational fishermen highly value groupers in these areas. 

Grouper fish vary in size depending on the species. Some smaller species measure only 12 inches in length, while larger species grow several feet and can weigh hundreds of pounds. While there are many grouper species, below is a list of the ten most prominent and most popular types

Atlantic Goliath Grouper 

Goliath Grouper (Epinephelus itajara)
The Goliath Grouper weighs over 800 pounds and measures over 8 feet.

©Jonathan Churchill/

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Scientific name: Epinephelus itajara

The Atlantic goliath grouper is the largest grouper species in the Atlantic Ocean, weighing over 800 pounds and measuring over 8 feet. This Grouper inhabitants waters of the Western Atlantic Ocean from Florida to Brazil, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. It inhabits areas with rocky, coral, and mud bottoms in marine waters up to 150 feet. You can find Juveniles in brackish waters. The goliath Grouper helps maintain balance in coral reefs keeping the ecosystem healthy as a top predator. They use their giant mouths to suck in whole fish or invertebrates, then swallow them immediately. Their preferred food is crustaceans like lobsters and crabs, fish, octopuses, and juvenile sea turtles

The Goliath Grouper is robust species with elongated bodies and large, broad heads. The coloration can vary from dark brown to olive green, with a mottled pattern and small white spots on the body and fins. Juvenile Atlantic Goliath Groupers often display more vivid patterns. 

Goliath groupers will get territorial and defend their space by opening their mouths aggressively and making a low rumbling sound. The oldest recorded lifespan of a grouper was 37, but scientists estimate goliath groupers can live up to 50 years. 

Conservation status

Goliath groupers in the past have been historically overfished, and their numbers decreased by 80%. As a result, the United States has since 1990 protected them under the Endangered Species Act. Strict regulations are in place to ensure the conservation of this species, including a ban on harvest and possession in both state and federal waters.

 Goliath groupers gather in massive aggregations of up to 100 individuals. Their huge spawning events made it easier for anglers to catch them in significant numbers. As a result, scientists managed Goliath groupers under a rebuilding plan where harvest was prohibited. It has taken the goliath grouper a long way to bounce back because their populations are slow to rebound because of their slow growth rate and late age of maturity. Now, the Goliath grouper is considered “vulnerable” rather than endangered.

 Queensland Grouper 

The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), also known as the brindlebass, brown spotted cod, or bumblebee grouper, and Queensland grouper in wildlife aquarium, Show big mouth, Head, Eyes and face.
You will find these giant fish in shallow waters in or around coral reefs.


Scientific name: Epinephelus lanceolatus 

Also known as the giant Grouper, this grouper fish can grow up to 9 feet long and weigh over 880 pounds. However, on average, these fish weigh 70-200kg and measure 1-2m in length. You will find them in the Indo-Pacific Region, including the waters of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef from the Hawaiian and Pitcairn Islands, southwest to Australia, north to southern Japan to the Red Sea, and south to Algoa Bay, South Africa. This is one of the largest reef-dwelling bony fish on the planet and the largest on coral reefs. You will find these giant fish in shallow waters in or around coral reefs. It is also found in shipwrecks or caves and estuaries. 

Adults are mottled brown to dark gray in color with pale spots or scars on their bodies and numerous black spots on their fins. The younger fish have irregular yellow and black markings. This fish has a robust body with a rounded tail and fleshy lips. The dorsal fin spines of mature individuals increase in size from front to back. Mature adults can weigh up to 882 pounds (400 kg). Significant individuals are possibly ciguatoxin. 

More Info

This is one of the largest bony fish on the planet and the most widely distributed Grouper species. Given its impressive reputation, it’s no surprise that this mighty fish is the aquatic emblem of Queensland, Australia. However, this giant of the sea is best admired from a distance because, given its predatory nature, it attacks humans. 

The giant Grouper can eat large fish and small sharks, but their favorite food is Crayfish. Adults have mottled brown to dark gray stocky bodies, and you will find them hovering in midwater or resting motionless on the substrate. A timid fish, the larger they grow, the shyer they become.

Nassau Grouper 

Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus)
The Nassau grouper is a reef fish and a member of the Serranidae family.

©Sergey Dubrov/

Scientific name: Epinephelus striatus 

The Nassau grouper is a reef fish and a member of the Serranidae family. These large fish weigh up to 55 pounds and stretch up to 4 feet in length. They can live up to 29 years and are associated with hard structures like reefs, rock, and ledgesThese fish mature late and live long lives as top-level predators found in tropical and subtropical waters in the Caribbean and western North Atlantic. 

Nassau grouper are a moderate-sized fish with large eyes and a robust body. Coloration varies, but moderate adult fish are generally light beige with five dark brown vertical bars., a large black saddle scar on top of the base of the tail, and a row of black spots below and behind the eye. A dark band forms a tuning fork pattern on top of the head, beginning at the front of the upper jaw, extending through each eye, and then curving to meet its corresponding band in front of the dorsal fin. 

The Nassau grouper used to be one of the most common species of Grouper in the United States. These fish are easy for commercial and recreational fishermen to catch and soon became scarce. In some cases, Nassau grouper is commercially extinct through much of its geographical range. Currently, The United States prohibits the harvest of Nassau grouper. Because their range exceeds national borders, the best approach to their conservation is regional closed seasons. Endangered Species Act lists the Nassau grouper. The purpose of the Endangered Species Act is to conserve endangered and threatened species and their ecosystems. 

Tiger Grouper 

Side view of a Tiger Grouper swimming over coral
Tiger groupers have been identified as a potential threat to human health through Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP).

©Focused Adventures/

Scientific name: Mycteroperca tigris

The tiger grouper is a large species that can grow up to 3.5 feet in length, and you can find them in the tropical waters of the Western Atlantic Ocean, particularly in the Caribbean Sea. These large ray-finned fish that belong to the same family as sea basses often display red or brown with dark upper bodies. They can alter their coloration and fluctuate between lighter and darker tones. 

This subtropical marine fish is reef-associated with a depth range of 10-40 meters distributed across the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. Populations occur in Florida, Bermuda, the Bahamas, and Brazil. 

The tiger grouper stands as a solitary carnivore ambush predator that usually hints at dusk and hides song coral and sponges waiting for prey, predominantly smaller fish, to come to them. When the prey is close enough, the Grouper strikes, resting a suction that engulfs them into their giant mouths to swallow them whole

Tiger groupers are currently listed as “data deficient” by the IUCN Red List, meaning there is insufficient data to assess their current state. However, there is a decreasing population trend, and further research is needed to determine the species fully, including population size and distribution, monitoring, life history, and ecology. 

Tiger groupers have been identified as a potential threat to human health through Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). When the toxins or marine algae bioaccumulate through the marine food chain, it ultimately ends up being consumed by humans, and it is considered the most common cause of human poisoning from fish in the tropics today.

Black Grouper

Black grouper, black rockfish or marbled rockfish (Mycteroperca bonaci) Jardines de la Reina, Cuba
Black Groupers have an olive or gray body with black blotches and brassy spots.

©Jesus Cobaleda/

Scientif name: Mycteroperca bonaci

This species of Grouper lives in the Western Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. It can grow 5 feet long and weighs over 100 pounds, but the average length is two feet. The United States wild-caught black grouper is a smart seafood choice because it is sustainably managed and responsibly harvested under U.S. regulations. 

Black Groupers have an olive or gray body with black blotches and brassy spots. Their cheek display gently rounded bodies. They can live up to 30 years old, begin life as a female, and some change into males as they grow. They change sex when usually between two and four feet long or 11 and 14 years old. The overall general sex ratio is one male for every four females. Black grouper spawning season occurs from May through August when they aggregate and spawn in huge numbers. Before the spawning season, however, the black Grouper is a solitary fish.

Young black Grouper eat crustaceans like shrimp, and adults feed on other fish and squid. Black Grouper use their large and powerful jaws to ambush their prey. They do not have teeth and instead use their mouths as gills to suck up their game. They also have teeth plated inside their throat, preventing prey from escaping after being swallowed. Black Grouper take advantage of other species’ reproductive aggregations for feeding. Sharks prey upon large black Grouper, while other grouper and moray eels prey upon smaller ones. 

Yellowedge Grouper 

White grouper fish
Yellowedge Grouper has a robust and elongated body with a large head and mouth.


Scientific name: Epinephelus flavolimbatus

The yellowedge Grouper lives in deep water and inhabits the Western Atlantic Ocean. This Grouper reaches lengths of up to 4 feet and weighs over 80 pounds. This fish swims in warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico and along the southeastern coast of the United States, ranging from Florida to North Carolina

This species has a robust and elongated body with a large head and mouth. It has a yellowish-brown to olive-brown coloration with distinct yellow edges on its fins, which gives it its common name. The body may have irregular dark blotches or spots. This fish is found at depths ranging from 300 to 900 feet, as they prefer offshore areas and deep waters. They inhabit rocky bottoms, ledges, and deep-water reefs.

Yellowedge groupers are predatory fish that feed on various prey, including fish and crustaceans. They are ambush predators, relying on their strong jaws and quick strikes to capture their prey. They are known to be solitary and territorial. 

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration listed the Yellowedge Grouper as a species of concern by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 

Warsaw Grouper 

Scientific name: Hypothodus nigritus 

This species is one of the largest species of Grouper, capable of growing up to seven feet in length and weighing over 500 pounds. It is in the Western Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. You can also find it along the eastern coast of the United States, ranging from North Carolina to Florida and throughout the Gulf of Mexico. You can also find it in the Caribbean Sea. 

This species displays a robust and elongated body with a large head and mouth. It typically shows grayish and brown coloration with irregular scars and spots on its body. The fins may have lighter coloration. The Warsaw groupers inhabit rocky bottoms, ledges, and deep-water reefs. They prefer depths ranging from 300 to 900 feet, but you can occasionally find them in shallower waters. 

Warsaw groupers display solitary and territorial characteristics. They ambush predators by waiting for their prey and using their giant mouths to engulf and swallow them whole. They feed on a variety of game, including fish and crustaceans. 

The International Union for the Conservation of Nature lists the Warsaw Grouper as a species of concern. It faced significant declines in population due to overfishing and habitat destruction. As a result, lawmakers set strict regulations to protect this species, including fishing restrictions and size limits. 

Snowy Grouper

Scientific name: Hyporthodus niveatus 

The snowy Grouper is a deep-water species found in the Western Atlantic Ocean from Massachusetts south to Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. It grows up to 3 feet in length and weighs over 50 pounds. Snowy Grouper displays a uniform dark color as an adult, but juveniles and smaller adult fish have a pattern of evenly spaced white spots on their sides and back. Small juveniles may have a dark saddle-like botch at the base of the tail fin and yellowish pectoral and tail fins. 

Adult snowy Grouper is found offshore over rocky bottoms at depths from 30 to 1300 feet. Both juveniles and adults live over reefs and hard-bottom habitats. This species of Grouper is a protogynous hermaphrodite, which means the fish are born as females and transition to males sometime after becoming adults. Unfortunately, scientists conducted little research about the spawning patterns of the snowy Grouper.

Yellowfin Grouper 

Yellowfin Grouper in the Tropical Western Atlantic
Yellowfin groupers undergo sex reversals from female to male in the latter part of life.

©Daryl Duda/

Scientific name: Mycteroperca venenosa

You can find this species in the western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It can reach lengths of up to 2.5 feet and weigh over 40 pounds; the average size is around 20 pounds. Their body is greenish-olive or bright red. Oval groups of dark spots form horizontal browns on the body. Outer third pectoral fins are bright yellow, and small sunny red locations are displayed on large individuals’ lower parts. They inhabit coastal offshore waters, typically near reefs, and juveniles live in seagrass. 

This species also undergoes sex reversals from female to male in the latter part of life. The scientific name translates to venomous, alluding to the fact that people associate it with ciguatera poisoning. They feed off fish, and the state record in Florida stands at 34 pounds caught by Key Largo. 

Red Grouper 

colorful red grouper
Colorful red grouper are darkish and brownish red.


Scientific name: Epinephelus morio

Anglers can find the red grouper in the western Atlantic Ocean. It typically grows up to 3 feet in length. Red grouper displays characteristics of robust bodies covered in tiny scales. Their head and body are dark reddish-brown, which fades to pink or reddish tones on the lower side. They often have white spots scattered on their sides and black spots on their cheeks. These groupers have giant mouths, with the lower jaw sometimes protruding slightly beyond the upper jaw. Inside their mouths, they possess bands of slender, sharp teeth and a few sturdy, immovable canines. Thanks to their sizable mouths, red groupers can consume their prey whole.

Summary of the 10 Biggest Types Of Grouper Fish

Here are the 10 Biggest Types Of Grouper Fish:

RankGrouper Fish
1Atlantic Goliath Grouper 
2Queensland Grouper 
3Nassau Grouper 
4Tiger Grouper 
5Black Grouper
6Yellowedge Grouper 
7Warsaw Grouper 
8Snowy Grouper
9Yellowfin Grouper 
10Red Grouper 

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About the Author

My name is Ella Coppola. I graduated from Southern Methodist University with degrees in Journalism and Ethics in Dallas, Texas. I'm a huge animal lover and have two dogs named Charlie and Meatball.

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