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Pink Fairy Armadillo

Pink Fairy Armadillo (Chlamyphorus truncatus)
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Pink Fairy Armadillo Facts

Five groups that classify all living things
A group of animals within the animal kingdom
A group of animals within a pylum
A group of animals within a class
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A group of animals within a family
Scientific Name:
The name of the animal in science
Chlamyphorus truncatus
The animal group that the species belongs to
What kind of foods the animal eats
Size (L):
How long (L) or tall (H) the animal is
90mm -115mm (3.5in - 4.5in)
The measurement of how heavy the animal is
120g (4.2 oz)
Top Speed:
The fastest recorded speed of the animal
How long the animal lives for
5 - 10 years
Whether the animal is solitary or sociable
Conservation Status:
The likelihood of the animal becoming extinct
The colour of the animal's coat or markings
Pale Rose
Skin Type:
The protective layer of the animal
Hard Shell
Favourite Food:
The preferred food of this animal
The specific area where the animal lives
Dry Grasslands and Sandy Plains
Average Litter Size:
The average number of babies born at once
Main Prey:
The food that the animal gains energy from
Ants, worms, plant material
Other animals that hunt and eat the animal
Domestic Dogs
Special Features:
Characteristics unique to this animal
Hard shell, large front claws, shielded head

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Pink Fairy Armadillo Location

Map of Pink Fairy Armadillo Locations
Map of South America

Pink Fairy Armadillo

 “The smallest known species of armadillo”

Also known as the Pichiciego, the pink fairy armadillo is the smallest known species of armadillo. It lives in the sandy plains and dry grasslands of central Argentina and other parts of South America. Unique adaptations like an aerodynamic body shape, smooth dorsal shell, and sharp claws mean this creature is able to completely bury itself in sand in a matter of seconds and then nagivate underground with ease. Similar to a mole, the pink fairy armadillo will spend the vast majority of its life underground. It is also nocturnal, only emerging ocassionally at night to find food.


4 Amazing Pink Fairy Armadillo Facts

  • Pumps blood through it's shell to regulate body temperature!
  • At approximately 13cm in length, it is so small it can fit in your hand! 
  • Also known as 'the sand swimmer' because of how quickly and easily they can navigate underground!
  • The only armadillo species whose dorsal shell is not completely attached to its body!


Pink Fairy Armadillo Scientific Name

The Pink Fiary Armadillo's scientific name is Chlamyphorus truncatus. The animal is also known as 'the sand swimmer' because of their uncanny ability to burrow and navigate underground. The animal is named for the uniquely pink color of it's protective armor. The first known published description of the pink fairy armadillo was by Richard Harlan in 1825. 


Pink Fairy Armadillo Appearance & Behavior

At only 120g and approximately 13cm in length the pink fairy armadillow is the smallest armadillo species. It is also extremely elusive, spending most of it's life beneath ground. It is also nocturnal, only emerging at night to gather food. Similar to other fossorial species, the pink fairy armadillo has claws on its front legs used for digging, a fusiform body shape, and minimal eye size. It also has a carapace (protective shell). Their shell of armor is light pink in color and contains 24 total bands. The shell forms a blunt end due to an extra vertical plate at the end of the shell. In total, the pink fairy armadillo has 28 teeth. These are all the same shape and have no enamel.

Unlike other armadillo species, the pink fairy armadillo has no visible ears and an additional large plate on the back of their head. Uniquely, the fairy armadillo's shell is not primarily used for protection. Instead, the main function is for thermoregulation. The armadillo can flush the blood vessels in its shell (hence the pink color), and adjust its body temperature. If the armadillo exposes more of its blood to the cool air it can lower it's temperature. Inversely, drainign the shell allos the animal to better retain heat. The pink fairy armadillo's shell is also not entirely attached to its body. A thin membrane runs along the creature’s spinal column for attachment.

Due to their low basal metabolic rates, pink fairy armadillos have a low body temperature and a high thermal conductance. Their metabolic rate is up to 60 percent lower than what is generally expected for a mammal of that body mass. This allows the pink fairy armadillo to help maintain its body temperature while in its burrow. Smaller creatures generally always have a tougher time retaining body heat due to their higher surface-area-to-volume ratio. This is why larger animals tend to live in colder environments while smaller animals are more often found in desert environments.

Pink Fairy Armadillo Habitat

Pink fairy armadillos can be found in the deserts and dry scrub lands of central Argentina and other parts of South America. Found primarily in the Neotropical regions of Mendoza, Buenos Aires, San Luis, La Pampa, and San Juan, the pink fairy armadillo’s geographic range is limited to areas in the east because of heavy rainfall in other regions. Because they tunnel only 6 inches below the surface, even modest rainfall can result in flooded burrows. Due to climate change and adverse conditions, it is predicted that the current population of pink fairy armadillos is low. The animal has been found from 1,500m in elevation all the way down to sea level.


Pink Fairy Armadillo Diet

The Pink Fairy Armadillo is an omnivore. Their diet mainly consists of ants, but ocassionally also snails, plant matter, and worms. The creature often builds complex tunnel systems within close proximity to ant hills, and primarily emerges to gather food during the nighttime.


Pink Fairy Armadillo Predators & Threats

The most common predator for pink fairy armadillos are domestic dogs and cats. Because the armored shell on the animal’s back offers minimal protection, the creature often retreats underground as a primary defense mechanism. Humans can be deadly to the pink fairy armadillo in a number of ways. The animal often falls prey to vehicles while attempting to cross a road. Also, if a pink fairy armadillo is taken in as a pet, they will likely become overwrought with stress and be unable to adapt to the artificial diet provided to them. It is estimated that more than 95 percent of pink fairy armadillos that fall into captivity die within eight days of being captured. Lastly, because pink fairy armadillos tunnel so close to the surface, converting their natural habitate to farmland or grazing areas for cattle can quickly damage their tunnel systems. 

According to the research that has been gathered, the population of the pink fairy armadillo continues to decrease, resulting in the animal being listed as a Threatened species since 1970.


Pink Fairy Armadillo Reproduction, Babies, and Lifespan

The pink fairy armadillo leads a solitary life except during mating. A female generally gives birth to a single young during a mating cycle. The baby armadillo’s shell is soft at birth will only become entirely hardened once it has grown into an adult.

The males have no external testicles and the females have two nipples. When mating, males will monitor the female and approach her. The male will then touch the female’s dorsal area, which results in the female wagging her tail. The male will proceed by sniffing the female and maintaining proximity.

There have been no long-term studies conducted on the pink fairy armadillo lifespan. In captivity, the longest life span noted has been four years. Most of these animals die only a few days after being taken in. Younger pink fairy armadillos have the lowest chance of survival in captivity, while adult females have the best chances of survival.


Pink Fairy Armadillo FAQs

Are pink fairy armadillos herbivores, omnivores, or carnivores?

The pink fairy armadillo is an omnivore. Ants act as this animal's primary source of food, though they are also known to forage on plant matter, worms, and snails. The pink fairy armadillo uses its digging abilities to burrow into ant colonies and sometimes forages for small insects above land at night.


Can You have a pink fairy armadillo as a pet?

The pink fairy armadillo cannot survive without its natural habitat, so it is a bad idea to keep a pink fairy armadillo pet. These animals live a nocturnal, subterranean lifestyle, making it impossible for them to live above ground for any extended period of time. Pink fairy armadillos are sometimes illegally removed from the wild to be kept or sold on black markets as pets, but they literally cannot survive captivity. Most die within eight days of being taken away from their habitat.

Why is the pink fairy armadillo pink?

The pink fairy armadillo is pink because of it's unique thermoregulation abilities. The animal will pump blood into it's shell to disperse heat, giving it a pinkish hue. This is a critical survival feature because of the hot and arid climate the pink fairy armadillo lives in. 

Are Pink Fairy Armadillos Dangerous

While pink fairy armadillos are not dangerous to humans, humans are extremely dangerous to them. Being excessively sensitive to changes in their environment, these animals will only survive a few days out of their natural habitat. When a pink fairy armadillo’s burrow is flooded, this forces them above ground. The creature can then die fairly easily after obtaining hypothermia from its wet fur. If a human gets ahold of the animal, this can also lead to death because of the pink fairy armadillo’s inability to cope with stress.

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First Published: 19th March 2010, Last Updated: 23rd January 2020

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