What morning would be complete without the song of a sparrow? The cheerful song of the small bird is one of the happiest sounds of the day. There are over 30 different kinds of sparrows all over the world. They are in urban areas and rural areas alike. These tiny musicians love bird feeders and bring their large families to them daily, looking for sunflower seeds.
The sparrow may not be the most colorful bird or the one most sought after by birdwatchers, but they are unique and adorable. These small feathered friends that sing their hearts out daily live quiet lives in the safety of brush or trees. They have many predators both day and night, which makes their fight for survival fairly difficult. Despite being hunted by everyone, the sparrow is still the most common bird throughout North America.
Physical Characteristics: Exploring the Diverse Physical Traits of Sparrows
The sparrow family doesn’t just include sparrows. Finches, grosbeaks, buntings, and juncos are also in the sparrow family, which makes the sparrow family the largest in the world of birds. Sparrows are also divided into two groups; New World and Old World sparrows.
Old World Sparrow
Old World sparrows are often called true sparrows. The Old World sparrows belong to the family Passeridae. These sparrows originated in Africa, Europe, and Asia but managed to hitch a ride to the Americas with European settlers. Now, sparrows like the house sparrow are found worldwide. Old World sparrows are a bit larger than New World sparrows. They are also much rounder than the New World sparrows, their tails are shorter, and their beaks are thicker.
Size: Old World Sparrows 4.1 – 7.1 inches
Weight: Old World Sparrows .47 – 1.5 ounces
Old World Coloration: Brown, grey, and black
- Cape Sparrow
- Eurasian Tree Sparrow
- House Sparrow
- Rock Sparrow
- Shelley’s Sparrow
- Somali Sparrow
- Yellow-throated Sparrow
New World Sparrow
New World sparrows belong to the family Passerellidae. These sparrows are more closely related to Old World buntings or finches than Old World sparrows. The New World sparrows are part of the Emberizidae family, which includes buntings and sparrows. The family falls within the order Passeriformes, which includes all perching bird types. The New World sparrow is not a sparrow at all, but since their appearance is similar to the Old World sparrow, the Passeridae family, they have been grouped.
Size: New World Sparrows 4.3 – 5.1 inches
Weight: New World Sparrows .4 – 1.7 ounces
New World Coloration: Green, yellow, grey, and red
- American Tree Sparrow
- Black-chested Sparrow
- Brewer’s Sparrow
- Chipping Sparrow
- Clay-colored Sparrow
- Dark-eyed Junco
- Field Sparrow
- Fox Sparrow
- Golden-crowned Sparrow
- Grasshopper Sparrow
- Lark Sparrow
- Le Conte’s Sparrow
- Lincoln’s Sparrow
- Savannah Sparrow
- Song Sparrow
- Sooty Fox Sparrow
- Vesper Sparrow
- White-crowned Sparrow
- White-throated Sparrow
Habitat and Distribution: Discovering the Varied Habitats and Global Distribution of Sparrows
Old World Sparrow
Countries: Africa, Asia, and Europe
Habitat: They prefer open areas to see danger coming and be able to fly without interference. Deserts, prairies, open woodlands, swamps, marshes, arid rocky areas, grasslands, and coastal regions.
The Old World sparrow, or Passeridae family, is native to Northern Africa, Europe, and Asia. They are now throughout the Americas and make up most of the small brown birds at birdfeeders.
New World Sparrow
Countries: Americas and every continent except for Australia and Antarctica.
Habitat: From the Arctic Tundra of North America down to the Southern Cone of South America; deserts, prairies, temperate forests, grasslands, coastal regions, rainforests, and xeric scrublands
The New World sparrow or Passerellidae family, can be found almost all over the world and is the most commonly seen family of birds. They inhabit all altitudes from sea level to tall mountains.
Diet and Feeding Habits: Unraveling the Nutritional Preferences and Feeding Behaviors of Sparrows
Old World Sparrows
In 1850, European settlers brought House Sparrows over with them because they wanted familiar birds to relocate with them and also because they wanted to eradicate the green inchworms from Central Park in NYC. They also planned to have these birds protect crops by eating nuisance insects. The birds, who eat some insects but primarily seeds, did not want the green inchworms or the insects responsible for damaging crops like orchards and gardens. Instead, they ate the crops for the seeds. To make matters worse, the sparrows also destroyed ornamental bushes near homes and businesses and have been known to cause a good bit of damage to automobile paint with their droppings. Humans should have learned long ago that tampering with nature was a big mistake.
The Old World sparrows do eat pests on corn, wheat, and grape crops. They are also responsible for seed dispersal through their droppings and are responsible for plant and tree growth. These tiny birds are also on the menu of many other birds and animals. In a way, they help out by creating another species of bird for the apex predators to claim other than threatened avian life.
The Old World sparrow eats with its flock, and there is a pecking order they follow. Oftentimes, an adult female is the oppressor. The little birds eat so much seed that it wears their beak down faster than they can regrow. These are the most frequently seen birds at birdfeeders in America. While the adults stick to seeds at times outside of the mating season, they feed their young insects.
Diet: Primarily seeds in the winter but prefers insects during the mating season. They like grass seeds, weed seeds, grain, seed sprouts, berries, buds, insects, and spiders.
New World Sparrows
Diet: Seeds in the winter and insects all other times of the year, along with berries, nuts, grains, and vegetation.
The New World sparrows are similar to the Old World sparrow in that they are omnivores who will eat most insects and seeds as they are available. Generally speaking, whatever food is most abundant and easiest to get, is what they choose. These are birds who spend their days hanging out at the birdfeeder or eating small-berried from bushes. They are opportunists and even stay up past dark to catch insects near bright lights. They have even been known to steal cat or dog food from time to time.
Song and Vocalization: Understanding the Chirps, Trills, and Songs of Sparrows
Old Word Sparrows
The song of the Old World sparrow is not as melodic as the New World sparrow. They tend to chirp without actually creating a song. The sparrows do, however, string chirps together, creating a very short-sounding song. They do have a very prominent and loud alarm call that they sound off whenever danger might be present to warn the rest of their flock.
New World Sparrows
New World sparrows, like the Old World sparrows, have distinctive mating and alarm calls. They also have sounds specific to communicating with their young and mate. The females do not sing generally. The males have short chirps they string together with other sounds, while some other types have a melodic song they sing. The males do most of their singing from a tall perch in their territory, and some even sing while in flight.
Conservation: The Importance of Sparrow Conservation and Habitat Preservation
When it comes to sparrow conservation, both the New World and Old World sparrows need little help. They are highly adaptable and able to live in many places with a wide range of climates. In India, The Sparrow Conservation works to aid in housing for sparrows in urban areas. These small birds make nests in farmland and congested cities, but oftentimes, their nests are hazards or can be easily dislodged and destroyed by everyday life. Schools participate in building nest boxes for the sparrows and place them around the schools and homes of the students.
Saltmarsh sparrows are steadily declining due to rising ocean tides. The only place they inhabit is the eastern United States coast. The destruction of our grasslands also negatively affects these small birds. They are running out of places to go. The saltmarsh sparrow makes its nest in tall coastal grass and if it chooses shallow areas, the potential for its young to become dinner for something sharing the habitat goes up. If they choose to make their nest in deeper areas, they risk having their nest and young flood with the high tide. Between the loss of habitat from coastal beach communities building more and taking more of the grassy coastal area and the steadily rising tides due to global warming, it isn’t looking good for the saltmarsh sparrow.
Another sparrow struggling to keep its numbers up is the grasshopper sparrow. These small songbirds are fighting similar battles because their habitat is declining very quickly and leaving them nowhere to nest. They are also suffering greatly due to pesticide use and loss of wintering habitats along with some other birds native to the same location. The grasshopper sparrow has 12 subspecies, with much of them being endangered. The Florida subspecies (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus), which takes up residence in the dry central Florida prairie, is endangered, and the Endangered Species Act is doing what it can to help the population of 200 birds bounce back. The American Bird Conservatory is also doing its part to help the struggling species.
Conclusion: Finding Joy in the Cheerful Song and Resilience of These Feathered Dynamos
No matter what hardships these little birds go through, they continue to cheerfully sing and go about their day. We can all learn something from the sparrow. They are low on the food chain and do not live more than a few years, but they do their best to have a good life. If their territory is taken by humans, they build their nests in our houses or garages.
They have predators from every angle, and so many parasites can render them handicapped or dead. Falcons from the sky, cats on the ground, and so many animals in between the two want to make a snack out of the sparrow. Yet every morning, they are the first ones we hear and the first ones we see happily chowing down at our birdfeeders. The sparrow is a symbol of resilience.
The photo featured at the top of this post is © iStock.com/Luc Pouliot
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