Mosasaurus

Mosasaurus hoffmannii

Last updated: July 15, 2022
Verified by: AZ Animals Staff
Image Credit iStock.com/MR1805

The Mosasaurus was much longer than the fearsome Tyrannosaur rex.

Mosasaurus Scientific Classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Reptilia
Order
Squamata
Family
Mosasauridae
Genus
Mosasaurus
Scientific Name
Mosasaurus hoffmannii

Read our Complete Guide to Classification of Animals.

Mosasaurus Conservation Status

Mosasaurus Locations

Mosasaurus Locations

Mosasaurus Facts

Prey
bony fish, cephalopods, sharks, marine reptiles
Main Prey
sea turtles
Group Behavior
  • Solitary
Fun Fact
The Mosasaurus was much longer than the fearsome Tyrannosaur rex.
Estimated Population Size
unknown
Biggest Threat
natural disasters
Most Distinctive Feature
double-hinged jaw
Distinctive Feature
long, muscilar tail
Other Name(s)
great animal of Maastricht
Habitat
shorelines, lagoons, shallow coastal waters
Diet
Carnivore
Lifestyle
  • Nocturnal
Number Of Species
5
Location
Atlantic ocean
Migratory
1

Mosasaurus Physical Characteristics

Color
  • Black
  • White
  • Dark Grey
Skin Type
Scales
Top Speed
30 mph
Lifespan
42 years
Weight
78 tonnes
Height
56 ft
Length
39-42 feet
Venomous
No
Aggression
High

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When people talk about prehistoric monsters, they typically refer to dinosaurs and other beasts that ruled the lands. But life in the Mesozoic was brutal on land and the seas. Among the ancient beasts that ruled the oceans of the world years ago were the Mosasaurus. It’s a genus of massive aquatic carnivorous lizards that lived during the Late Cretaceous Era from about 70-66 million years ago. 

Description & Size

Mosasaurus is one genus among the dozens that make up a family of extinct large marine reptiles known as mosasaurs (Family Mosasauridae). The Mosasaurus is actually considered the type genus of this family-which means most of the biological description of the family is based on it. The name Mosasaurus means lizard of the Meuse River, a reference to the river where its fossil was first found. 

two mature mosasaurs on a white background
Mosasauruses had long and muscular tails that allowed them to swim fast and ambush prey.

iStock.com/MR1805

Although they lived around the same time as the dinosaurs, the Mosasaurus were actually not sea dinosaurs. Rather, it was a genus of reptiles more closely related to present-day squamate reptiles such as snakes and lizards. 

Most species of the Mosasaurus genus were massive in size. In fact, the largest reptiles of the Mosasaur family were members of this genus. Mosasaurus hoffmanni is the biggest Mosasaur fossil ever found. Scientists estimate that it was about 46-56 feet long. Its size is comparable to that of the Megalodon; a well-known giant prehistoric shark believed to have lived around the same time. 

Although Mosasaurus were reptiles, they were similar in appearance to modern-day whales. They had a two-lobed tail made of soft tissue. The Mosasaurus’ tail bends slightly downwards towards the end. They also had a pair of forelimbs and hindlimbs. They used these paddle-like limbs for fast swimming.



The Mosasaurus had a massive head with pharyngeal jaws. Their large jaws had 40-50 massive teeth that were long and sharp, with two opposite cutting edges. The jaw of the Mosasaurus was double-hinged, which allowed it to open its mouth wide to swallow prey whole. 

Diet – What Did Mosasaurus Eat?

Mosasaurus were most likely the most dominant predator species that lived during the cretaceous period. These large and carnivorous sea monsters would have eaten pretty much any kind of prey they could find, given their large size. Their diet would have consisted of large fish, sharks, sea birds, and even small mosasaurs. The Mosasaurus’s feeding habits differed from that of other sea predators. Instead of taking large bites out of prey like sharks, this reptile most likely swallowed its prey whole after piercing it with its massive teeth. 

Habitat – When and Where It lived

Adult mosasaur tylosaurus swimming close to the sea bed
Adult Tylosaurus, a mosasaur, grew to over 14 meters long, making it the largest marine reptile

iStock.com/MR1805

Although Mosasaurus was a reptile, just like modern-day crocodiles, the dinosaur lived and hunted in the warm deep waters of the Cretaceous. Scientists believe that it probably never traveled too far from shore. Based on fossil evidence, Mosasaurus inhabited a large portion of the Atlantic ocean and its adjacent seaways. Fossils of this species have been found in diverse locations, including the Americas, Africa, Europe, Asia, and Antarctica. This suggests that its habitat covered a wide range of climatic conditions, including tropical, subtropical, subpolar, and temperate climates. 

Threats And Predators

Mosasaurus was large and formidable enough to be the apex predator in its time. However, it might have faced competition from other large sea monsters that lived around the same period. These include other massive mosasaurs like the Prognathodon and Tylosaurus. These large prehistoric monsters most likely competed for the same prey and lived in the same ecosystems. A fight between a Tylosaurus and a Mosasaurus was documented in a fossil record. Large Mosasaurus might have cannibalized juveniles as well. Natural disasters also threaten their survival.

Discoveries and Fossils – Where It was Found

The first known Mosasaurus fossil discovery was in 1764 in a chalk quarry in the Netherlands. Only the skull was preserved, and it was initially identified as a whale. A second skull from the same quarry was later found in 1780, and physician Johann Leonard Hoffmann who studied it, thought it was a prehistoric crocodile fossil. This fossil was nicknamed the “great animal of Maastricht “, a reference to the name of the town where they discovered the fossil. It wasn’t until 1822 that scientists gave it the name Mosasaurus. ‘

Mosasaurus used their large, cone-shaped teeth to hunt ammonoids.

iStock.com/478919426

Extinction – When Did It Die Out?

The mosasaurs became extinct about 65 million years ago, along with the non-avian dinosaurs. Scientists have linked their disappearance to the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction caused by a giant asteroid that crashed into the earth. Although there is a chance that some of these monsters remained after the asteroid crash, the marine ecosystem they depended on most likely collapsed, leading to their eventual disappearance.  

Similar Animals to The Mosasaurus 

Similar animals to the Mososaurus include: 

  • Prognathodon – a massive Mosasaur reptile that had massively built jaws and teeth.
  • Tylosaurus: a genus of marine reptile in the Mosasaur family, the Tylosaurus is the ancient ancestor of the modern-day monitor lizard
  • Megalodon: a 60-ft long gigantic shark that was an apex predator in the marine ecosystem. Probably the largest shark to ever prowl the ancient oceans

View all 117 animals that start with M

About the Author

Abdulmumin is a pharmacist and a top-rated freelance writer on Upwork. He can pretty much write on anything that can be researched on the internet. However, he particularly enjoys writing on health, technology and animals. He is inquisitive and currently aspires to become a software engineer. He loves animals, especially horses and would love to have one someday.

Mosasaurus FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

When was the Mosasaurus Alive?

The mosasaurus lived during the Cretaceous about 70-66 million years ago. It became extinct about 65 years along with the non-avian dinosaurs during the K-T extinction event.

 

How Big was Mosasaurus 

Scientists have conflicting opinions about the exact size of the largest Mosasaurs. However, the estimate puts it at about 46-56 feet long.

 

What did Mosasaurus feed on 

Paleontologists believe that the Mosasaurus was most likely an active predator that ate a variety of Marine animals. This would have included bony fishes, sharks, birds, cephalopods, and other marine reptiles, including members of its own order.

 

Why did Mosasaurus go extinct?

Mosasaurus went extinct after the Chicxulub asteroid impact event that wiped out several large reptiles and other animals about 66 million years ago. The impact of the asteroid and the resultant climate change that followed killed off several animal species, including the Mosasaurus.

Sources
  1. Wikipedia, Available here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosasaurus

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