- California is the state with the second-highest number of rattlesnake species in the U.S., with 12 different types.
- The Western Diamondback Rattlesnake is found in the southeastern regions of California and is notorious due to their aggressive nature. They may, in fact, be the most aggressive species of rattlesnake.
- Sidewinders move very differently from other snakes, winding their long bodies sideways across the sand and leaving a unique “J” shaped print.
California is home to 12 different types of rattlesnakes, making it the state with the second-highest number of rattlesnake species and subspecies in the United States. Rattlesnakes in California are quite common, found anywhere from the deserts of the south to coastal beach areas. Most of these snakes are non-aggressive, but you are more likely to see them during the warmer months from April through October. So, what types of rattlesnakes live in California?
1. Panamint Rattlesnake
|Range||Southeastern California & northern parts of the Mojave Desert|
The Panamint Rattlesnake lives in the southeastern regions of California and northern portions of the Mojave Desert, right along the California-Nevada border. This snake gets its name from the Panamint Mountains in Death Valley, which lie in the center of its overall range. Panamint rattlesnakes are 23-52 inches long with off-white, gray, tan, yellow, or orange-colored bodies. They have blotched patterns along their bodies that are gray, brown, or reddish-brown. There is also a dark ring or band near the rattle at the end of their tails.
2. Great Basin Rattlesnake (Western Rattlesnake)
|Great Basin Rattlesnake|
The Great Basin Rattlesnake is found in northeastern California, favoring areas with agriculture, grassy plains, stony canyons, and rocky hillsides. This snake lives along much of the Great Basin area of the United States, which is where its name comes from. The Great Basin Gopher Snake, a non-venomous snake species, looks very similar to the Great Basin Rattlesnake. Sadly, their similar appearance and mimicking behaviors result in a great deal of unnecessary violence to the harmless Great Basin gopher snake.
You can tell the two apart by several identifying characteristics. First, the Great Basin rattlesnake has a large, triangular-shaped head and a much thicker, stockier body than the gopher snake. While both snakes rattle their tails as a defense, the gopher snake does not actually have a physical rattle like the Great Basin rattlesnake.
The Great Basin rattlesnake is a subspecies of the Western rattlesnake, typically measuring three feet in length, although they can grow anywhere between 16-64 inches long. These snakes have neutral-colored bodies that are olive brown, yellowish brown, light brown, or pale gray, with dark blotches on their backs. The blotches also have pale-colored centers.
3. Western Diamondback Rattlesnake
|Western Diamondback Rattlesnake|
The Western Diamondback Rattlesnake is found in the south-eastern regions of California, the southwestern U.S., and northern Mexico. These snakes are notorious due to their aggressive natures. They may, in fact, be the most aggressive species of rattlesnake. Whereas most rattlesnakes will hide, flee, or freeze, western diamondback rattlesnakes will choose to stand their ground and attack. These snakes are typically 4-6 feet long with gray bodies. As their name implies, they have diamond-shaped markings running along the middle of their backs. These “diamonds” are dark, outlined by light yellow or white. The end of their tails has distinct black and white bands or rings, like the pattern of a raccoon tail. Because of this, western diamondback rattlesnakes are also referred to as “Coon-Tail Rattlers.”
4. Red Diamond Rattlesnake
|Red Diamond Rattlesnake|
Striking in color, the Red Diamond Rattlesnake lives in the southwest regions of California, Baja California, and some of the islands in the Gulf of California. This snake grows to be 40-55 inches long. However, the snakes living near the coast tend to grow longer than those in the deserts. The red diamond rattlesnake is a Species of Special Concern in California. Unfortunately, much of its habitat has been destroyed by urban development.
Red diamond rattlesnakes are reddish brown in color, with light-colored diagonal stripes on the face. There are lightly outlined diamond blotches running along the middle of their backs. Like the western diamond rattlesnake, the red diamond rattlesnake also has distinctive black and white rings at the end of its tail.
Of all the rattlesnakes in California, the red diamond rattlesnake’s venom is the least potent. However, without medical attention, a bite from this snake can be fatal. In fact, the red diamond rattlesnake’s venom gets more and more toxic as these snakes get older. Its venom is hemotoxic, causing pain, swelling, necrosis, and internal bleeding. The red diamond rattlesnake’s venom has helped in developing new drugs. Some scientists are even looking at it for possible anti-cancer properties.
5. Sidewinder Rattlesnake
|Range||Southeast California (Mojave & Sonoran Deserts)|
The Sidewinder Rattlesnake is found in the Mojave Desert and the Sonoran Desert in southeast California. These snakes can also be found in many desert regions of the United States and northwest Mexico. Sidewinders move very differently from other snakes, winding their long bodies sideways across the sand. You can tell if a sidewinder has been in an area if you see their unique “J”-shaped body prints left behind in the sand.
Sidewinder rattlesnakes prefer sand or sandy soil, so their bodies are colored to match. These snakes grow to 17-30 in length with sandy colors like yellowish-brown, cream, pink, or tan. To further increase their camouflage, sidewinders have dark markings across their bodies like colored sand particles. Along with their unique way of moving, sidewinders can be distinguished by the “horns” just above their eyes, giving them the nickname “horned rattlesnakes.”
6. Mojave Desert Sidewinder
|Mojave Desert Sidewinder|
The Mojave Desert Sidewinder is a rattlesnake found in southeastern California, the southwestern deserts of the United States, and northwest Mexico. It is a subspecies of the Sidewinder Rattlesnake, with many similar behaviors. The Mojave Desert sidewinder uses the same unique method of locomotion to move across desert sands and up sand-covered slopes. It also buries itself in the sand to ambush prey in the same way the sidewinder rattlesnake does.
Mojave Desert sidewinders are 17-33 inches long and can be gray, brown, tan, cream, or pink. They have darker, geometric blotches running down the middle of their backs, with smaller patches scattered across their bodies that help them to blend in with the sand. They have a dark stripe that runs from the eye down to the corner of the mouth. Mojave Desert sidewinders also have horn-like scales right above their eyes.
7. Colorado Desert Sidewinder
|Colorado Desert Sidewinder|
|Range||Far Southeast corner of California (Sonoran Desert)|
The Colorado Desert Sidewinder lives in the far southeast corner of California in the Sonoran Desert. It is also found in Arizona and Mexico. This snake is a subspecies of the Sidewinder Rattlesnake, with many similar behaviors, like moving in the “sidewinding” motion across desert sands and hiding in the sand to ambush its prey.
Colorado Desert sidewinders are usually gray, cream, or light tan in color, with dark grey or brown blotches along their backs. Like the Mojave Desert sidewinder, the Colorado Desert sidewinder also has a dark strip of color running from each eye to the back corner of the mouth, as well as horn-like scales above each eye. It is difficult to tell these two subspecies apart from one another, due to their similar appearance and behavior. The most obvious difference is that the Colorado Desert sidewinder is found further south in the Colorado Desert, whereas the Mojave Desert sidewinder lives just north of this range.
8. Northern Pacific Rattlesnake
|Northern Pacific Rattlesnake|
|Range||North & Central California|
The Northern Pacific Rattlesnake lives in Northern and Central California. Its range stretches from southwest Canada through many western U.S. states all the way down to northern Mexico. In general, the Northern Pacific rattlesnake is around 39 inches long, but many longer ones have been recorded. This snake is usually gray, brown, tan, or even black, with very large dark blotches running down its back. These darker blotches are outlined with a cream color, creating very small spaces between the large dark blotches. These darker blotches change into rings at the end of the snake’s tail, continually getting darker until they are nearly black. As Northern Pacific rattlesnakes get older, their colors get darker and their patterns become much less clear.
Northern Pacific rattlesnakes are not usually aggressive. However, they have potent venom with hemotoxins and neurotoxins that can cause headaches, necrosis, internal bleeding, and cardiovascular issues.
9. Southern Pacific Rattlesnake
|Southern Pacific Rattlesnake|
The Southern Pacific Rattlesnake lives mostly in the coastal regions of Southern California, Mexico, Baja California, and some of the Santa Catalina Islands. It often lives along beaches, forests, mountains, and desert brush. The venom of Southern Pacific rattlesnakes contains potent neurotoxins like the Mojave rattlesnake, attacking the nervous system and disrupting breathing and muscle control.
The Southern Pacific rattlesnake is 24-55 inches long and is usually gray, olive-brown, brown, yellowish-brown, or almost black. It has darkly outlined blotches running down the middle of its back, separated by lighter strips of color. These dark blotches are diamond-shaped, but near the end of the tail, they become stripes. Due to this diamond-shaped pattern, the Southern Pacific rattlesnake is also called the Black Diamond Rattlesnake and the Gray Diamond-Back Mountain Rattler.
10. Mojave Rattlesnake
|Range||The Mojave Desert in California|
The Mojave Rattlesnake, also known as the Mojave Green, only lives in the Mojave Desert in California. This snake is 39-54 inches long. It is usually brown, although some may have a greenish hue, which is why they are sometimes called “Mojave Green” snakes. Mojave rattlesnakes have dark-colored diamond markings along their backs. They also have a white band around their tails before the rattle. Mojave Rattlesnakes are some of the most dangerous snakes in North America because of how potent their toxic venom is.
11. Northern Mojave Rattlesnake
|Northern Mojave Rattlesnake|
|Range||Common across California|
The Northern Mojave Rattlesnake is common throughout California, the southwestern United States, and Mexico. These snakes are 24-51 inches long and are a subspecies of the Mojave rattlesnake. Their appearance is much like the Mojave rattlesnake, with base colors of brown, tan, gray, olive green, and yellow, patterned with dark diamond-like shapes along the middle of their backs. Like the Mojave rattlesnake, the Northern Mojave rattlesnake is one of the most venomous rattlesnakes in the world.
12. Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake
|Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake|
|Length||39 inches or less|
The Southwestern Speckled Rattlesnake is found in most of Southern California, especially in the south-eastern desert areas of the state. These snakes generally do not grow more than 39 inches in length in the United States. They get their name from the “speckles” of color covering their tan or light brown bodies They also have small dark bands along the length of their bodies as well. Their colors and markings work as excellent camouflage, so each snake varies in appearance. Some snakes may have additional colors, like yellow, pink, orange, white, or gray, depending on where they are found. These colors and patterns help speckled rattlesnakes blend in with the sandy, rock areas where they live.
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