Otters are silly, lovable animals with loads of personality, just like humans. They have plenty of good and bad habits and behaviors. Are all otters monogamous or polygamous? Do they like to keep their options open or settle and raise families together? There is no straight answer to whether otters mate for life. Some do, some don’t. Let’s see which lifestyle some of the many species of otters choose; then, you can figure out the more complicated answer to the question.
Meet the Otters
North American River Otter (Lontra canadensis)
The North American river otters do not mate for life, or so that’s the most common answer among the scientific community regarding these playful critters. However, some research paints a different picture. We will leave it up to you, the reader, to decide which to believe.
During copulation, the otters mate in the water. The otters will begin the mating ritual with a bit of foreplay with an emphasis on play. They will run and chase each other on land and in water, where they will roll and play fight. The two will hold onto each other in the water and spin. Once this stage is wrapping up, the male otter will bite the female on the face and neck. This is the most common reason female otters have pink scars on their noses. Sometimes, the male will bite the female’s nose off.
The male otter will hold onto the female’s neck as they mate, which generally takes place underwater. The mating can take anywhere from 16 to 73 minutes. Sometimes, the male will drown the female by refusing to let go when she needs to return to the surface to refill with oxygen. If this occurs, the male goes on mating with the female and may even drag her dead body to the bank of the river, where he may continue to mate with it for days.
After the otters mate, the female otter can postpone pregnancy for up to 11 months. After she gives birth to the pups, she will chase the male away if he sticks around, which is unlikely. He will not be able to return to help until after the pups are weaned. The father will then disappear until the next annual mating season rolls around. Most studies show that the male disappears after mating and mates with several more females. He may mate with different female otters during the next mating season.
Sea or Marine Otter (Lontra felina)
Sea or marine otters mate for life, sort of. They are native to California, Washington, Canada, Alaska, Russia, and Japan. Female sea otters may mate with a single male sea otter together, and sometimes, a single male will mate with multiple females that are not connected. The females chosen to mate have stumbled into the male’s territory. When they do mate, they remain together for one through four days, and they will likely copulate several times in that period.
The sea otter mating ritual is intense and sometimes also deadly. The male will swim up behind a female, grabbing her from behind, and will also grab her face and nose in his teeth. If the female is less than excited about mating, the male may hold her head underwater as a way to subdue her. If she is seriously injured, the pair bond will be broken and the female will try to leave the male’s territory. He will do whatever he can to make sure she doesn’t leave. The males do not help with rearing pups.
Giant River Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)
The giant river otters mate for life. They are native to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. As with many types of otters, the giant river otters mate in the water. There is a lack of information regarding the breeding of giant otters because they are severely endangered and become stressed when humans are around.
The male otter bites the female on the neck, and they twirl and mate underwater. Once they are finished, they frolic and play together. The otters live in family groups consisting of bonded parents and pups. The pups can be several generations old and stay around as helpers to rear the younger pups.
Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra)
Eurasian otters do not mate for life. They are native to Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. The otters prefer to spend their time alone. The males and females have territories they maintain, but when a female enters the territory of a male it is generally because she is ready to mate. They also all use a communal bathroom in which the male otters can smell when the female is ready to mate. This is how all the otters know what’s going on with each other.
Their breeding rituals remain a bit of a mystery. The otters mate underwater and it is likely they also bite and the male holds her underwater, causing wounds to her neck and nose. The males mate with several females and it is possible that the females also mate with several males. After the female is pregnant, she will remain in the male’s territory but does not interact with him again.
Asian Small-Clawed Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis)
Research suggests that Asian small-clawed otters do mate for life. These otters are native to southern India, southern China, Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. The otters have one mate per breeding season and some pairs may be a lifelong bond. The males help raise the pups and bring food for the female while she’s in the den and also may bring food for the pups once weaning is complete.
Mating generally occurs underwater but sometimes also takes place on land. It lasts anywhere from five to 25 minutes.
Neotropical River Otters (Lontra longicaudis)
Though little is known about neotropical otters, research points to them not mating for life. They are native to Central America, down to South America, and on the island of Trinidad.
The neotropical river otters will only stay together for one day during the breeding cycle. Otherwise, they are solitary animals. They can breed year-round but typically do so in the spring, like many mammals. Only the mother provides care for the pups, which they must also protect from other otters.
Smooth-Coated Otter (Lutrogale persipicillata)
The smooth-coated otter is one species that does mate for life. These otters live in the Indian Subcontinent, southeast Asia, China, and in a small area of Iraq. These otters live in family groups with the parents as the one breeding pair. The others are adult pups from their other litters. The parents can mate at any point in the year, though the weather and monsoon season play a big part in their decision. The smooth-coated otters’ copulation finishes in one minute, which takes place in the water.
A Word About Otter Reproduction
Overall, the mating rituals of the thirteen different kinds of otters are very similar. They are very social and friendly with each other until they finish mating, then it’s “see, you next year or not ever again.” Of course, not all otters are this way but a majority of otters are polygamous, or both partners have multiple partners.
Otters are also not fond of humans so finding out what their mating rituals are is not an easy feat. What is known is in this article. It’s also difficult to know whether or not some species of otters are monogamous or not without tagging and tracking each one. When humans interfere in an otter’s life, they run the risk of stressing them out so much that they will leave the area, abort their babies, or become sick. Many types of otters are extremely endangered and it is best to leave them alone due to their mysterious behavior.
10 Common Habits of Mating Otters
- Otters are all very private animals when it comes to human involvement.
- They most frequently mate in the water.
- Some male otters, if not all, are aggressive in their mating rituals.
- Mother otters are very attentive in caring for their pups.
- Each sex sticks together unless it’s mating season.
- Most otters are endangered, which makes it very important not to stress them out with human activity.
- Almost all species of male otters do not take part in raising the pups.
- Female otters almost always have pink scars on their noses, lips, faces, and necks from mating rituals.
- Pups have a very close bond with their mothers.
- Otters in captivity rarely breed.
The photo featured at the top of this post is © ThiagoSantos/Shutterstock.com
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