Asp

Vipera aspis

Last updated: February 7, 2022
Verified by: AZ Animals Staff
Image Credit Federico.Crovetto/Shutterstock.com

It was the symbol of royalty in Egypt, and its bite was used for the execution of favored criminals in Greco-Roman times.

Asp Scientific Classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Reptilia
Order
Squamata
Family
Viperidae
Genus
Vipera
Scientific Name
Vipera aspis

Read our Complete Guide to Classification of Animals.

Asp Conservation Status

Asp Locations

Asp Locations

Asp Facts

Prey
Rodents, birds, lizards
Fun Fact
It was the symbol of royalty in Egypt, and its bite was used for the execution of favored criminals in Greco-Roman times.
Litter Size
5 to 12
Diet
Omnivore
Common Name
European asp

Asp Physical Characteristics

Color
  • Brown
  • Grey
  • Orange
Lifespan
15 to 20 years
Length
2 to 3 feet

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View all of the Asp images!



The asp is a poisonous snake that is native to parts of Europe.

Although this reptile has long been associated with the culture of ancient Egypt, historians believe the Egyptian symbolism referred to a horned viper or a species of cobra. Asps are not native to Egypt, and their triangular heads slightly resemble those of cobras. These snakes live in many forested areas of Europe, and their bites can be deadly.

4 Amazing Asp Snake Facts

  • It has long, hollow fangs it can rotate independently.
  • Although most vipers are nocturnal, the asp is a diurnal predator.
  • Asp snakes are ambush predators.
  • Although associated with Egyptian symbolism, asps are not native to Egypt.

Where To Find Asps

Asps are native to native to Andorra, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. They thrive in warm climates that are exposed to the sun for many hours of the day. Their preferred habitat has thick vegetation for cover. Asps like to live near streams and don’t typically extend their range into the mountain heights.

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The asp’s habitat can vary according to where you find it. It is primarily found in hilly areas, scrublands, sunny slopes, and lower mountain slopes. You can find it in any wooded area, especially at the edge or border of woodland.

Asp Snake Scientific Name

The scientific name of the asp is Vipera aspis. Other names for this snake are the asp viper, European asp, and aspic viper.

The asp’s scientific name comes from the ancient Greek word “aspis,” which means viper. In ancient Rome and Egypt, the asp was a symbol of royalty. Queen Cleopatra reportedly committed suicide by letting herself be bitten by an asp. Modern historians say it was more likely that she took an overdose of sleeping potions, but the legend persists.



Asp Population & Conservation Status

The asp is classed as “least concern” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It has a wide distribution and a large, stable population. The exact numbers are unknown, however. The asp is protected by the Berne Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, also known as the Berne Convention.

Specific subspecies of the asp are threatened:

  • Vipera aspis aspis is critically endangered in Switzerland.
  • Vipera aspis atra is vulnerable.
  • Vipera aspis francisciredi is endangered.

How To Identify Asps: Appearance and Description

The asp has certain characteristics that make identification of this species easy. It has a broad, triangular head that almost looks like the head of a cobra. It also has an upturned snout.

Its colors are also distinctive. Males are usually gray with a slight zig-zag pattern of darker colors on their backs. Females may be gray, brown, or orange with similar dorsal markings.

Size is another way to identify this snake. The asp is a long snake that can reach more than 3 feet in length. Its long, curved fangs are a key point of identification.

Their fangs are hinged, hollow, and rotatable. They can rotate them independently or together, which allows them to conserve venom. Asps take a long time to renew their venom once they use it. With a long lifespan of up to 20 years, it’s important to use their poison only when necessary.

Asp Pictures

Asp viper (Vipera aspis) on a rock, Liguria, Italy. Males are usually gray with a slight zig-zag pattern of darker colors on their backs.
Asp viper (Vipera aspis) on a rock, Liguria, Italy. Males are usually gray with a slight zig-zag pattern of darker colors on their backs.

Marco Maggesi/Shutterstock.com

The asp is a long snake that can reach more than 3 feet in length. Its long, curved fangs are a key point of identification.
The asp is a long snake that can reach more than 3 feet in length. Its long, curved fangs are a key point of identification.

Matteo photos/Shutterstock.com

Close-up of Vipera aspis (Asp viper). The snake has long, hollow fangs it can rotate independently.
Close-up of Vipera aspis (Asp viper). The snake has long, hollow fangs it can rotate independently.

Federico.Crovetto/Shutterstock.com

Asp Venom: How Dangerous Are They?

This snake is highly poisonous. The asp’s bite is very painful, and untreated bits can be fatal.

Symptoms of an asp bite begin with sharp pain, followed by swelling and bruising. The venom can cause rapid degradation of blood vessels, leading to problems with vision.

It’s important to note, however, that asps typically deliver a “dry bite,” which is a bite that doesn’t inject poison. While very painful, this is not life-threatening. Only a very frightened asp will deliver a poisonous bite.

Facts About Snakebite

If an asp bites you, seek medical attention immediately. Antivenoms exist for their poison, but untreated bites can be dangerous.

Follow these steps:

  • Keep the victim calm. Getting agitated will increase the heart rate and worsen the problem by circulating the venom more rapidly.
  • Remove anything that might constrict the area where the bite happened.
  • Use a bandage and splint to immobilize the limb.
  • Do not allow the victim to eat or drink anything, even water. It’s important to keep their metabolism low.
  • Do not cover the bite. Clean the wound location with antiseptic.
  • Use suction devices to suck the venom out of the puncture mark. Many snakebite kits include these devices.
  • Get the victim to a hospital as soon as possible. Using an antivenom serum is the only way to treat asp bites.

Do not:

  • Apply ice to the bite.
  • Cut or slice the wound to release the poison.
  • Suck the venom out with your mouth.

Even a full bite from a venomous snake is only fatal in a few cases. With proper first aid and antivenom serum, full recovery from snakebite is possible.

Asp Behavior and Humans

The asp snake is diurnal. It spends its day hunting for small animals, and its diet includes rodents, lizards, and birds. It uses an ambush hunting style, hiding in vegetation and shrubbery until it senses prey nearby. When it detects an animal moving past its location, the asp strikes with its venom.

At night, it retreats to a burrow. It is unusual to see an asp at night.

If you meet a snake asp, do not approach it. Back away slowly, and wait for the snake to move away. This snake is not aggressive, and it is likely to simply run away if you don’t agitate it.

Asps have a characteristic warning sign. They curl their tail into a circle, stretch the front part of their body upward and then hiss loudly before they strike.

The asp has a long lifespan of 15 to 20 years in the wild.

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Asp FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What is an asp snake?

An asp is a type of poisonous snake that is native to parts of Europe. It reaches 3 feet in length and has long curved fangs. An asp is a reptile and a member of the viper family.

What is a black asp snake?

A black asp snake is not a separate species of asp. Some asps are so dark gray that they appear black. A black asp snake is rare to see and very striking in appearance.

What happens if an asp snake bites you?

You will feel sharp pain, swelling, and possible loss of vision. It’s important to get medical help immediately.

How big can an asp snake get?

It can grow up to 3 feet long.

Are asps venomous?

Yes, they are poisonous. Their bite is painful and can cause swelling, intense pain, and loss of vision.

How do asps hunt?

These predators use an ambush hunting method. They wait in a hidden location for prey to walk past. When they sense prey nearby, they reach out and bite it with their fangs.

Are asps aggressive?

They are not aggressive. Despite their large size and fierce fangs, most asps will not attack humans unless they feel threatened. In most cases, people are bitten because they try to touch the snake, poke it with a stick or step on it by accident. Always be careful when hiking in the woods. Wear thick, protective shoes and socks, and watch where you are walking.

Where do asps live?

They live in Europe, especially France, Italy, and Switzerland. They prefer a sunny habitat close to water sources with exposure to hours of sunlight. You can find them in most hilly, woodland areas of Europe. Although many people associate asps with Egyptian symbolism, they are not native to Egypt.

How do you know if a snake is an asp?

The main identification marks are the snake’s large size, triangular head, and dorsal markings. It typically has spots in brown, gray, and other dark colors.

What do asps eat?

They are carnivores and predators. Their diet includes small reptiles, birds, and rodents.

Sources
  1. Live Science, Available here: https://www.livescience.com/54023-vipers.html#
  2. Iberian Vipers, Available here: http://www.viborasdelapeninsulaiberica.com/description-asp-viper-1.html
  3. Planet Deadly, Available here: https://www.planetdeadly.com/animals/dangerous-animals-europe
  4. Animalia, Available here: https://animalia.bio/asp-viper

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