Discover West Virginia’s Only Rattlesnake Species

Written by Kellianne Matthews
Updated: April 7, 2023
© Tim Malek/
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Key Points

  • Although they can be extremely dangerous, timber rattlesnakes are typically calm and rarely bite.
  • Rattlesnakes are also pit vipers, which means that they have venom and pit organs.
  • Timber rattlesnakes are important predators in West Virginia and help to keep the ecosystems balanced.

The Mountain State of West Virginia is home to at least 20 different species of snakes. However, only two of these snakes are venomous, including the only rattlesnake in West Virginia: the timber rattlesnake. Although they can be extremely dangerous, timber rattlesnakes are typically calm and rarely bite. In fact, according to the WVDNR, there have only been four deaths caused by timber rattlesnake bites since 1969. However, understanding more about the timber rattlesnake will help to avoid any additional fatalities. Keep reading to learn more about West Virginia’s only rattlesnake species, the timber rattlesnake.

Some Background On Rattlesnakes And Pit Vipers

Close up of a Timber Rattlesnake eye
Timber rattlesnakes have a black, green, and brown scaling pattern

©Scott Delony/

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Rattlesnakes get their name from the iconic rattle found at the end of their tail. This rattle is a collection of keratin rings or segments that builds up each time the snake sheds. Some snakes may only have one keratin “button”, while others will have several that form a distinctive rattle.

The size of a rattlesnake’s rattle, however, does not indicate its age. Rattlesnakes shed 2-3 times a year, which means they might add 2-3 new rings or segments on their rattles each year. In addition, these rattles are somewhat fragile and often break, so even an older rattlesnake could have a very small rattle.

These rattles act as an early warning system against potential dangers. When a human or large animal gets too close to a rattlesnake, for example, the snake may vibrate its tail rapidly, causing its keratin segments to knock together and make a rattling noise.

Rattlesnakes are also pit vipers, which means that they have venom and pit organs. There are large venom glands on either side of the snake’s head. Because of this, pit vipers have large triangular-shaped heads that are much wider than the snakes’ necks. In addition, pit vipers have a set of heat-sensing “pits” between their eyes and nostrils. The pits contain sensitive receptors that allow pit vipers to sense infrared waves and heat, helping them to locate prey as well as potential predators.

West Virginia’s Only Rattlesnake Species: The Timber Rattlesnake

A Timber Rattlesnake striking prey
Timber Rattlesnakes strike quickly. They are the only species found in West Virginia.

©Joe McDonald/

The only rattlesnake species in West Virginia is the Timber Rattlesnake. These snakes live in rocky areas in the eastern corner and panhandle of the state, and down along the eastern and south-western regions. They often live in forested and mountain areas with rugged terrain. Male snakes commonly prefer deciduous woodlands that are dense and cool. Pregnant female snakes, on the other hand, often bask in the warmth of the sun along rocky edges.

Timber Rattlesnake
RangeWest Virginia’s eastern corner, panhandle, eastern edge, south-western regions
Length36-48 inches

Timber rattlesnakes are important predators in West Virginia and help to keep the ecosystems balanced. These snakes also help to control populations of rodents and small mammals that often carry and transmit things like Lyme disease. Unfortunately, however, the population of timber rattlesnakes in West Virginia is steadily declining. Wildlife Services and biologists are working together to better understand these snakes and manage their decreasing populations. So, if you happen to come across a rattlesnake in West Virginia, you can let them know by filling out an observation form.

What Do Timber Rattlesnakes Look Like?

Timber rattlesnaake coiled in a loop
It is important to look carefully whenever you are in an area where Timber Rattlesnakes live. These snakes have excellent camouflage that keeps them well hidden.

©Frode Jacobsen/

The best way to identify a rattlesnake in West Virginia is to look for the rattle on the end of the snake’s tail. Since timber rattlesnakes are the only rattlesnakes in the state, this makes them pretty easy to identify. However, as mentioned earlier, not every rattlesnake will always have an obvious rattle, but they have many other defining characteristics as well.

Timber rattlesnakes have thick and heavy bodies with a dark tail, and typically measure between 36-48 inches in length. The colors and patterns on their scales, however, give them excellent camouflage, making them difficult to see if they are not moving. In West Virginia, there are two many color patterns of Timber Rattlesnakes:

  1. A Yellow Phase timber rattlesnake is usually gray, brown, or yellow, with dark brown or black crossbands along the length of its body.
  2. A Black Phase timber rattlesnake also has dark crossbands, but the background coloring is much darker. There may also be dark stippling patterns scattered across the snake’s body, and some snakes may appear almost entirely black.

Timber Rattlesnake Behavior

Timber Rattlesnake coiled on a rock
Timber Rattlesnakes are the most venomous snake in the U.S.


Timber rattlesnakes have a rather fearsome reputation. In fact, their scientific name, Crotalus horridus, means “dreadful rattle”. Not only are timber rattlesnakes intimidating because of their size, but they also have an extremely potent venom and large fangs. Because of this, they can inject large amounts of toxic venom with their bite, potentially making them the most dangerous in North America.

Fortunately, however, timber rattlesnakes are not at all aggressive. In general, these snakes are secretive and mostly want to be left alone. They will give lots of warnings by rattling their tails and hissing before they ever attempt to strike. When humans are bitten by a timber rattlesnake, it is usually because they were trying to harm or kill the snake, capture it, or stepped on it without realizing it was there.

In addition, timber rattlesnakes spend much of the year in brumation, when the weather is too cold for them. They emerge from their dens near the end of April but are lethargic for a while. During the spring and fall, male timber rattlesnakes are active as they search for female mates. Female timber rattlesnakes give live birth every 3-5 years, around the end of August through the middle of September. They can have between 4-14 babies that are already 12 inches long with plenty of venom, large fangs, and a small button at the end of their tails.

The Timber Rattlesnake: West Virginia’s Official State Reptile

Don't Tread on Me Flag
Images of a timber rattlesnake coiled and ready to strike were commonly used during the Revolutionary War in the United States.

©Nickolay Belevtsov/

In 2008 the Timber Rattlesnake became the official state reptile of West Virginia, with help from an eighth-grade class at Romney Middle School. The timber rattlesnake is a great symbol for West Virginia because it is present throughout the state. It also has a rich cultural history in West Virginia and the United States.

During the 18th century, the timber rattlesnake was an important symbol for American colonists. Benjamin Franklin began using allusions and images of the snake in his publications and political cartoons. During the American Revolution, an image of a timber rattlesnake coiled and ready to strike was used as a symbol of independence and a new identity for the Thirteen Colonies. They used to warn Great Britain not to ignore the rights and freedoms of its American subjects. The timber rattlesnake was often depicted on a yellow background with the motto “Don’t Tread on Me” below it. Many soldiers painted it on their drums, and later it was put on the Gadsden Flag.

Other Venomous And Non-Venomous Snakes Found In West Virginia

copperhead camouflaged in leaves
Copperheads are easily hidden on the ground because of their color.

©Jay Ondreicka/

West Virginia has two venomous species of snakes, the timber rattlesnake and the copperhead. Like the rattler, the copperhead is also a member of the pit viper family and has a venom that is hemolytic, which is a type of venom that causes the breakdown of red blood cells. This snake has an unmarked, copper-colored head and reddish-brown, coppery body with chestnut brown crossbands. Although these snakes are not aggressive, they are territorial and many attacks occur when they are stepped on or accidentally touched, which is why they account for the most snake bites than any other North American species. Their venom is not as deadly as others in the pit viper family and rarely results in fatalities. These reptiles are known to inhabit leaf piles, which camouflages them, as well as rotting wood, sawdust piles, and forested hillsides.

Queen snake coiled in the grass
The queen snake is a non-aggressive, non-venomous snake found in North America

©Jason Patrick Ross/

Of the 20 snakes found in this state, the queen snake is one of 18 of the non-aggressive, non-venomous species. As this semi-aquatic snake likes to always remain in water that moves quickly, they tend to reside mostly in rivers and mountain streams. This is a skinny snake, that can reach lengths of 2 to 3 feet long and is grey or brown with a yellowish stripe along the lower sides of its body. Although they are not aggressive, they do still bite and will also release a foul-smelling secretion.

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Do Rattlesnakes Swim -Rattlesnake in Water
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About the Author

As a professional writer and editor for many years, I have dedicated my work to the fascinating exploration of anthrozoology and human-animal relationships. I hold a master's degree with experience in humanities, human-animal studies, ecocriticism, wildlife conservation, and animal behavior. My research focuses on the intricate relationships and dynamics between humans and the natural world, with the goal of re-evaluating and imagining new possibilities amid the uncertainty and challenges of the Anthropocene.

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