Caterpillar

Last updated: September 6, 2021
Verified by: AZ Animals Staff

The larvae of a moth or butterfly!



Caterpillar Scientific Classification

Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Lepidoptera

Caterpillar Conservation Status


Caterpillar Facts

Main Prey
Leaves, Plants, Flowers
Habitat
Quiet forests and pastures
Predators
Birds, Wasps, Mammals
Diet
Herbivore
Favorite Food
Leaves
Common Name
Caterpillar
Number Of Species
21000
Location
Worldwide
Slogan
The larvae of a moth or butterfly!

Caterpillar Physical Characteristics

Colour
  • Yellow
  • Red
  • Blue
  • Black
  • Green
  • Orange
Skin Type
Hair

Caterpillar Images

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It is estimated that there are over 20,000 species of caterpillars in this animal group, and there may be that many more left to be discovered.

The only job of the caterpillar is to eat, and it may increase its size by more than 1,000 times before metamorphosizing into a moth or butterfly. As the insect grows, most species will shed their skins four times. They have over 4,000 muscles in their bodies. Different species metamorphosize at unique rates ranging from 1-to-11 months.

5 Incredible Caterpillar Facts!

  • There are more than 20,000 species in the world. Biologists believe that they will discover many more of these animals, with many of them being discovered in remote areas.
  • Some of these insects that turn into moths can sting, but butterfly caterpillars cannot sting.
  • The vast majority of them eat plants, but a few will eat insects and other caterpillars.
  • They may spin a single pupa, or they may spin a cocoon around themselves before spinning an additional pupa around the cocoon.
  • The caterpillar stage can last from 1-to-11 months, depending on the species.The largest caterpillars in the world can reach up to 6 inches in length!

Caterpillar Species, Types, and Scientific Name

Caterpillars are the larval stage of members of the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars belong to the same classification as the butterfly that they become as butterflies. This scientific name comes from the Ancient Greek language. The first part of the scientific name lepís means scale while the second part of the scientific name pterón means wing.

There are about 180,000 species in this order that biologists have placed into 126 family and 46 superfamily classifications. Only about 10% of them may still be alive. Most butterflies are in the Papilionoidea superfamily, which can be divided into several classifications, including:

  • Hesperiidae – These are skipper butterflies.
  • Papilionidae – There are more than 550 species in this family, including some of the world’s largest butterflies.
  • Pieridae – Most members of this group that includes more than 1,100 species, develop into yellow or orange butterflies, and they usually live in the tropics in Africa and Asia.
  • Riodinidae – More than 1,500 species in this family where the butterfly will have metallic-looking marks on its wings.
  • Lycaenidae – There are over 6,000 members of this family, with most having blue wings and black on them.
  • Nymphalidae- There are more than 6,000 members of this group who live worldwide. This is the largest group of butterflies, and it is divided into 13 superfamilies.

Appearance: How to Identify Caterpillars

In order to identify what type of caterpillar you are looking at, you need to pay attention to several different factors, including:

  • Size
  • Color, such as green or black
  • Type of hair covering if any
  • Markings, such as stripes or spots
  • Presence of horns
An Emperor moth Caterpillar (Saturnia pavonia) feeding on a bramble leaf.
An Emperor moth Caterpillar (Saturnia pavonia) feeding on a bramble leaf.

Habitat: Where to Find Caterpillars

These insects can be found almost anywhere that there are plants for it to eat. Some species have particular habitats while others live in many different areas. Butterflies often live under leaves, in shrubs and grasses.


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Diet: What Do Caterpillars Eat?

Most butterflies eat plants. Most prefer the leaves but will eat the seeds and petals if they are hungry enough. Some caterpillars also eat insects and even other caterpillars.

Caterpillar to Butterfly

A caterpillar is ready to become a butterfly the moment that it comes out of its cocoon. First, it eats a bunch of food until it reaches a predetermined size. That process can last from one-to-11 months. Then, its body releases the molting hormone ecdysone. Each time the hormone is released, the caterpillar’s body still contains juvenile hormones. Therefore, it remains a caterpillar. Each time the ecdysone hormone in the caterpillar’s body becomes stronger while juvenile hormones become less. Most caterpillars go through this process four times.

As the process is taking place, imaginal discs have started to emerge from the caterpillar’s body. After the juvenile hormone level drops below a certain threshold and the ecdysone hormone rises above a particular level, the caterpillar forms a chrysalis. The developing imaginal discs grow quickly into a sock shape. Each imaginal disc becomes a part of the butterfly’s body, and most of the caterpillar is transformed into the butterfly.

One more burst of ecdysone hormone occurs, and the adult butterfly emerges.

Prevention: How to Get Rid of Caterpillar

It is important to remember that not all of these insects are harmful, but they may harm plants in farm fields or your garden. If you notice them in an area where you want to get rid of them, then there are at least four methods that you may want to try.

First, you can hand pick them off your plants. This method is most effective if you have a small area and catch caterpillars in the area when there are only a few. Sometimes, spraying the area with water is an effective way to encourage caterpillars to move on.

Secondly, if the insect has built nests, you can use a stick or other object to knock down the nest and tear it apart. You need to destroy the nests so that the eggs inside them do not turn into more caterpillars. Since caterpillars usually return to the nest at night, this method works best when done in the evening or early morning.

Third, you can use Bacillus thuringiensis to kill them. Bacillus thuringiensis is a soil bacterium that destroys the stomach of caterpillars.

Another option is to make a deterrent at home. Take a little molasses and mix it with water and dish soap. Spray it where you see these insects. They do not like the taste, and they will move on to another area.

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Caterpillar FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

Are Caterpillars herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores?

Caterpillars are Herbivores, meaning they eat plants.

What Kingdom do Caterpillars belong to?

Caterpillars belong to the Kingdom Animalia.

What class do Caterpillars belong to?

Caterpillars belong to the class Insecta.

What phylum to Caterpillars belong to?

Caterpillars belong to the phylum Arthropoda.

What order do Caterpillars belong to?

Caterpillars belong to the order Lepidoptera.

What type of covering do Caterpillars have?

Caterpillars are covered in hair.

Where do Caterpillars live?

Caterpillars are found worldwide.

In what type of habitat do Caterpillars live?

Caterpillars live in quiet forests and pastures.

What is the main prey for Caterpillars?

Caterpillars eat leaves, plants, and flowers.

What are some predators of Caterpillars?

Predators of Caterpillars include birds, wasps, and mammals.

What is an interesting fact about Caterpillars?

Caterpillars are the larvae of a moth or butterfly!

How many species of Caterpillar are there?

There are 180,000 species of Caterpillar.

Are Caterpillars Insects?

Yes, caterpillars are insects. They are a juvenile form of a moth or a butterfly, and both are insects.

Is a Caterpillar an Insect or Worm?

A caterpillar is an insect. They all have six legs. They may also have additional appendages that look like legs but are not legs.

Are Caterpillars Harmful?

It depends on the species of the caterpillar if they are harmful. Some caterpillars, like the saddleback, can cause misery to people who touch them. You can identify saddleback caterpillars by their oval purplish-brown spot in the middle of a green patch on its back. Saddleback caterpillars deliver the poison through tubes on the side of their bodies.

What's the purpose of a caterpillar?

The purpose of a caterpillar is to eat. Most caterpillars, like the swallowtail caterpillar, have a set of plants that they prefer. These plants are called umbellifers. For the swallowtail caterpillar, favorite umbellifers include milk parsley, carrot, fennel and angelica. Caterpillars, like the swallowtail, use the food that they eat to grow. Then, they build their cocoon, where they morph into butterflies.

Do all caterpillars turn into butterflies?

No, not all caterpillars turn into butterflies. Some turn into moths. An example is the woolly bear caterpillar that turns into an Isabella tiger moth. Woolly bears are one of the few caterpillars that can survive in the Arctic. The woolly bear has hundreds of hairs covering its body. When they feel threatened, they often roll up into a ball. Then, all you can see is their hair. Additionally, centipedes and millipedes can look like caterpillars. They are not classified as caterpillars or as insects because they do not have six jointed legs.

How do you identify a caterpillar?

With over 20,000 caterpillars in the world, it can be very challenging to identify them. You need to consider several different factors. Start by narrowing down the list based on where the caterpillar lives. Then, consider its color, such as green, orange, or black. Next, look for any special features, such as a hair-covered body or horns. Finally, once you have gathered as many facts as you can, use a book to decide what type of caterpillar you are seeing.

Sources
  1. Discover Wildlife, Available here: https://www.discoverwildlife.com/animal-facts/insects-invertebrates/how-does-a-caterpillar-turn-into-a-butterfly/
  2. Wildlife Insight, Available here: http://www.wildlifeinsight.com/guide-to-british-caterpillars/caterpillar-anatomy/
  3. The Caterpillar Lab, Available here: https://www.thecaterpillarlab.org/single-post/2016-1-14-whoa-caterpillars-eat-that
  4. Woodland Trust, Available here: https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/blog/2019/05/are-caterpillars-insects/
  5. Wikipedia, Available here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepidoptera
  6. Leafy Place, Available here: https://leafyplace.com/types-of-caterpillars/
  7. Center for Urban Agriculture, Available here: https://ugaurbanag.com/saddleback-caterpillars/

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