Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian

Updated: March 8, 2023
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Below you can find a complete list of Mediterranean Sea animals. We currently track 125 animals in Mediterranean-Caspian and are adding more every day!

The Caspian Sea is the largest saltwater lake in the world, stretching for about 1,200 km from north to south. It covers a gross area of about 38,6400 km and the surface is about 89 feet below sea level.

Reports suggest that approximately 11 million years ago, the Caspian Sea was connected to the world’s oceans via the sea of Azov, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. The latter is an intercontinental sea that runs from the Atlantic Ocean to Asia and is known to separate Europe from Africa. These places are sometimes also used as major fishing sites.

The Official National Animal Of Mediterranean-Caspian

Being waterbodies, the Mediterranean-Caspian may not have an official national animal but there are some animals or aquatic creatures that are known to exist in the area. For example, the Caspian Seal, which is endemic to the Caspian Sea. These seals are one of the very few seal species that exist in inland waters. However, due to the hydrological environment of the sea, these are different from those that exist in freshwater.

The Caspian Seal is also listed as a rare mammal. One of the smallest members of the seal family, it is found exclusively in the brackish waters of the Caspian Sea. It weighs up to 140 pounds, with a length of 4.6 feet, and can be found along rocky islands and shorelines. This seal is also one of the most endangered seal species in the world, with numbers of only around 600. Listed as endangered since 2008, their numbers have declined due to illegal hunting and climate change.

The Mediterranean Sea might not have an official national animal, but the waterbody has about 20 different species of whales, complemented by dolphins.

Where To Find The Top Wild Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian


Loggerheads are the most abundant sea turtles.

©Matteo photos/

The Mediterranean-Caspian seas are home to several unique varieties of wildlife and aquatic animals and plants. Some of the animals found in the Caspian Sea include the Caspian seals and sturgeons. The sea also acts as an important site for migratory birds like ducks, flamingoes, and swans. Meanwhile, some of the animals in the Mediterranean Sea include sharks, rays, pufferfish, Mediterranean monk seals, and loggerhead turtles.

  • Caspian seal: The Caspian seals are found exclusively in the brackish waters of the Caspian Sea.
  • Sturgeons. These creatures are found in the freshwaters of the Caspian Sea.
  • Mediterranean monk seals: These seals are commonly found in the waters of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Sharks: You can also pot sharks in the waters of the Mediterranean Sea which might attract fishing experts.

Although endangered, the loggerhead sea turtle is one of the most abundant sea turtles. They are known for having powerful jaws and large heads, weighing up to 500 pounds, and having a shell length of 45 inches. Sea turtles are different than freshwater turtles in that they can’t retract their heads and flippers inside their shells.

The Most Dangerous Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian

devil fish or devil ray (Mobula mobular)

Devil fish or devil ray (Mobula mobular)


The Mediterranean-Caspian provides an important habitat for many unique yet dangerous wildlife species. These dangerous animals include the deadliest of sharks, whales, and sturgeons.

The giant devil ray, though considered endangered, is one of the most dangerous animals in this area due to its sheer power and size. They don’t have a defensive spine on their tail, so while this does not pose a threat, they may damage boats and when caught, may be harmful. Unfortunately, due to the fisheries and the degradation of the natural habitat, the Mediterranean-Caspian area is far more dangerous for their sea life than for humans.

Angel sharks used to roam much of the water, but they have become endangered with all of this activity. Not considered to be very dangerous, they have been known to bite divers when they are provoked.

Endangered Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian

young sturgeon

©Sytilin Pavel/

The Mediterranean-Caspian is home to a large number of unique flora and fauna wildlife species. However, some of the animals that are found in these areas are now endangered or are close to being declared extinct due to their predators or human activities. These endangered or prone to being extinct animals include:

  • Caspian seal
  • Mediterranean monk seal (It is critically endangered)
  • Loggerhead sea turtles

Out of 71 different species of sharks assessed by the IUCN Red List criteria, nearly half of the species are on the brink of extinction. The Maltese skate (or the Maltese Ray) is native to the area, but they are considered critically endangered by the IUCN.

The Russian sturgeon, also known as diamond sturgeon, is one of the most valuable species of fish that inhabits these waters. Highly prized for its roe, it was once the most widely distributed species but due to overfishing, illegal catching, and pollution, this fish is almost extinct.

The Rarest Animal In Mediterranean-Caspian

Mediterrainean monk seal

Mediterranean monk seals are rare and endangered.


The Mediterranean-Caspian Sea area is not home to many mammals and of those here, there are currently 35 species that are listed as rare and endangered and require special protection.

The Mediterranean Monk seal is one of the rarest pinniped species in the world. It is estimated that there are only between 600 to 700 currently surviving and is one of the most endangered marine mammals. This seal ranges in color from light gray to black to dark brown. The females can weigh between 530 to 880 pounds while the males can weigh up to 710 pounds. Their heights average 7.9 feet with the females only being slightly shorter than the males. They like to seek refuge in caves and live on sandy beaches and shorelines.

The Largest Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian

Fin Whales are the main baleen whale in the Mediterranean.


There are 8 species of whales located in the Mediterranean-Caspian divided into two types – baleen and toothed. The largest of the baleen whale species is the Fin Whale. This large mammal can weigh up to 70 tons and reach lengths of 72 feet. Baleen whales have baleen plates in their mouths that act as a sieve to separate their prey from seawater. The fin whale has an average lifespan of 90 years.

The largest of the toothed whales, and the largest toothed predator, that lives in this region is the sperm whale. Toothed whales have teeth and actively hunt their prey, like fish and squid. The sperm whale can reach a length of 52 feet and may weigh 45 tons. They have an average lifespan of 70 years but are currently listed as endangered.

Mediterranean Sea Animals

Albacore Tuna

The albacore is a very fast swimmer


November 12th is celebrated as National Pizza with the Works Except Anchovies Day


There are 70 different species!


The anglerfish has a glowing lure on its head to attract unsuspecting prey


Closely related to crabs and lobsters!


Can grow to nearly 2 meters long!

Bearded Fireworm

They emit bioluminescence during their mating ritual.


Not all birds are able to fly!

Blanket Octopus

Females can weigh up to 40,000 times more than their partners.

Blue Shark

Blue sharks can have up to 135 pups at a time.

Bluefin Tuna

The bluefin is one of the largest fish in the world

Bonito Fish

May eat squid or other small invertebrate ocean life

Bottlenose Dolphin

Stays in groups from 15 to 2,000 in number!'

Bull Shark

Unpredictable and aggressive temperament!

Butterfly Fish

There are more than 100 different species!


Also called ghost shark


Also known as the anemonefish!

Cobia Fish

It has teeth not only in its jaws but in its tongue and the roof of its mouth


Cockles live quite long; their lifespan usually ranges from 5 to 10 years in the wild.

Conger Eel

The European Conger ( Conger conger) can weigh as much as an adult human!

Cookiecutter Shark

The cookiecutter shark takes its name because it leaves a cookie-shaped bite hole in its prey.


There are more than 6000 species of coral in the world's oceans.


There are 93 different crab groups

Crappie Fish

The crappie is one of the most popular freshwater fish in North America.


Found throughout the world's oceans!


Can reach speeds of up to 25 mph!

Dusky Dolphin

Communicates using whistles, squeaks and clicks!

Eagle Ray

Majestic underwater bird like fish


Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!

False Killer Whale

The false killer whale looks like a cross between a dolphin and orca!

Fin Whale

Found throughout ocean waters worldwide!


Respire through the gills on their heads!


A flat fish found in the Atlantic and Pacific!


There are more than 240,000 different species!

Fur Seal

Found only in the Northern Hemisphere!

Garden Eel

Garden eel colonies are made up of hundreds to thousands of individuals.

Ghost Crab

Their eyestalks, which are sometimes horned, can swivel 360 degrees

Goby Fish

Some Goby species are toxic.

Great Hammerhead Shark

Great hammerhead sharks have a 360 view because their eyes are situated on the ends of their mallet-like heads.

Great White Shark

Can grow to more than 8 meters long!

Grey Seal

One of the rarest species of seal on Earth

Gulper Eel 

Gulper eels have a similar lifespan to humans and can live up to 85 years old. However, their age depends on their habitat and the availability of food.


Can use slime to suffocate marine predators or escape capture

Hammerhead Shark

Found in coastal waters around the world!

Harbor Porpoise

Surprisingly, not a dolphin!

Hermit Crab

There are over 500 different species!


People enjoy the taste of the oily fish in many different ways including pickled, smoked, salted, dried and fermented.

Horseshoe Crab

Changed little in over 500 million years!

Humpback Whale

There are thought to be 80,000 left in the wild!

Immortal Jellyfish

Excellent hitchhiker on long-trip cargo ships


There are an estimated 30 million species!


Have tentacles around their mouths!

John Dory

The John Dory is often labeled one of the ugliest fish in the world and has no known relatives.

Killer Whale

Typically consumes over 200 kg of food a day!

King Crab

Can have a leg span of nearly 2 meters!


The krill is perhaps the most important animal in the marine ecosystem!


Not related to the eel


Have been known to reach 100 years old!

Man of War Jellyfish

Named for an 18th century warship


Also known as the Sea Cow!

Manta Ray

Can grow up to 9m wide!

Minke Whale

There are two recognised species!

Mola mola (Ocean Sunfish)

The ocean sunfish is the biggest bony fish in the world

Moray Eel

Sometimes, groupers invite moray eels to help them hunt!


Nematodes range in size from 1/10 of an inch to 28 feet long


They get toxins from their prey to use it against predators.

Nurse Shark

Commonly found in Central American waters!


The Giant oarfish (Regalecus glesne) holds the Guinness Book of World Records for the longest bony fish in the world.


There are around 300 different species!


They live in deep water as far as 2,600 feet below the water’s surface.


Can process up to 10 litres of water an hour!


The parrotfish can change from female to male at some point in its life.


Spends 75% of it's time hunting for food!

Porbeagle Shark

The porbeagle is one of the few sharks that jumps out of the water


Closely related to crabs and lobsters!


The second most poisonous creature in the world!


They float with the current.

Reef Shark

Grey reef sharks can give birth without males


Fast billfish with a sail-like dorsal fin

Sand Tiger Shark

The sand tiger is the shark most commonly seen in aquariums.


Legs also function as gills


Schools of sardines can be miles long and are often visible from an airplane


Sawfish teeth keep growing as the fish gets older

Sea Anemone

Creatures have characteristics of both animal and plant

Sea Eagle

The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner

Sea Lion

It's flippers allow it to walk on the land

Sea Slug

All sea slugs have both male and female sex organs

Sea Squirt

There are more than 3,000 known species!

Sea Turtle

Always return to the same beach to lay eggs!

Sea Urchin

Can live for up to 200 years!


Some gulls are capable of using tools


Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!


There are 30 different species worldwide!


No shark species has any bones in their bodies


There are 2,000 different species worldwide!

Sixgill shark

The sixgill shark has six pairs of gills instead of the normal five

Skipjack Tuna

The skipjack is the most commonly caught tuna in the world

Sleeper Shark

The Greenland shark is one of the longest living vertebrates in the world.


There are nearly 1,000 different species!

Sperm Whale

Each tooth weighs 1kg!

Spinner Shark

Can have up to 20 babies

Spiny Dogfish

Found in ocean waters worldwide!


There are more than 9,000 known species!


Some species are known to have 10 arms!


Has 2 stomachs to aid digestion!

Stargazer Fish

Uses an electric shock to stun its prey!


It's stinger is razor-sharp or serrated!


Large species can swallow whole salmon

Telescope Fish

Swallows food, much of it larger than them, whole

Thornback Ray

The skate with the biggest spines!


Can be heard out of water


There are 40 species of Triggerfish, all with different coloring and patterns.


Nests on tropical islands and cliffs!


The tuna has a sleek body that enables it to swim quickly through the water


Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.


Viperfish have a bioluminescent spine on their dorsal fin.

Whale Shark

The largest species of fish in the world!


"Whiting" can refer to certain other species of ray-finned fish


There are more than 500 different species!

Yellowfin Tuna

The yellowfin forms schools with other tuna species

Zebra Mussels

A female zebra mussel can deposit 30,000 to 1,000,000 eggs each year!

Mediterranean Sea Animals List

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About the Author

Melissa Bauernfeind was born in NYC and got her degree in Journalism from Boston University. She lived in San Diego for 10 years and is now back in NYC. She loves adventure and traveling the world with her husband but always misses her favorite little man, "P", half Chihuahua/half Jack Russell, all trouble. She got dive-certified so she could dive with the Great White Sharks someday and is hoping to swim with the Orcas as well.

Animals In Mediterranean-Caspian FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What animals live in the Caspian Sea?

Some of the animals that live in the Caspian Sea include Caspian seals and sturgeons and some migratory birds like swans and flamingoes.

What kind of animals live in the Mediterranean?

Some of the animals in the Mediterranean Sea include sharks, rays, pufferfish, Mediterranean monk seals, and loggerhead turtles – some of which are now endangered or extinct.

Does the Caspian Sea have sharks?

Yes, some parts of the Caspian Sea are home to sharks. However, recreational fishing has made the area somewhat dangerous for 30 different species.

What dangerous animals are in the Mediterranean Sea?

Some of the deadliest sharks and whales can be found in the Mediterranean Sea.

How many seas are there in the world?

The Mediterranean Sea is one of approximately 50 seas in the world. Oceans, properly speaking, are the vast, open portions of the earth’s salt waters. When a section of the ocean is partly surrounded by land, then it is a sea.