Animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Updated: January 24, 2023
Below you can find a complete list of Bosnia and Herzegovinan animals. We currently track 235 animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina and are adding more every day!
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a small Balkan country located in southeastern Europe that gained its independence in 1992 following the breakup of Yugoslavia. Except for a small 12-mile coast along the Adriatic Sea, it is completely hemmed in by Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Geographically, most of the terrain in Bosnia and Herzegovina is dominated by vast mountain ranges, including the Dinaric Alps, the Vlasic, the Grmec, and the Cincar. More than half the country is covered by pine, beech, and oak forests, which provide a home to some of the most unique and diverse wildlife in all of Europe.
The Official National (State) Animal of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have an official national animal.
Where to Find the Top Wild Animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina has set aside three national parks to protect its wildlife and natural beauty. Many of these parks contain walking and hiking trails that wind their way through the mountains and forests.
- The Una National Park, located near the Unac River on the western border with Croatia, is Bosnia’s largest national park. Protecting some 76 square miles of forests, rapids, and brilliant waterfalls, the park is home to a wide diversity of freshwater fish and birds, as well as the more elusive lynx, wolf, chamois, fox, and bear.
- The Kozara National Park is situated at the convergence of the Una, Sava, Vrbas, and Sana rivers in northern Bosnia. Amid the rolling forested slopes of the Kozara mountains, visitors can find ducks, hares, boars, deer, foxes, and pheasants. The nearby area is a popular hunting ground as well.
- The Sutjeska National Park, located along the eastern border with Montenegro, encompasses nearly 67 square miles of forests, waterfalls, and glacial lakes near the Maglic mountain, which, at nearly 8,000 feet, is the country’s highest point.
- The Perucica Forest Reserve, located within the park, is a UNESCO recognized site and one of the few remaining primeval forests left in Europe. Most of the trees date back some 300 years, and the oldest has grown untouched for thousands of years. Bears, foxes, goats, boars, wolves, martens, and wild cats are among some of the mammals found here. There are also more than a hundred species of birds, including the peregrine falcon, blackbird, and rock partridge.
The Most Dangerous Animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina Today
Bosnia is home to three venomous species of snakes and a few large and intimidating carnivores. Anyone who ventures out to the remote areas of the country should look out for the following species:
- Nose-horned Viper – Easily identified by the grayish-brown color, a dark zigzag pattern around the back, and the unique horn emerging from the snout, the horned viper is perhaps the most dangerous snake in all of Europe, due mostly to the long fangs and the highly toxic venom, which can sometimes result in death. This snake is fairly common to dry, rocky hillsides throughout most of the Balkans.
- Meadow Viper – Usually found in mountainous or hilly meadows, this species has weaker venom and less aggressive behavior than the nose-horned viper, but it can still cause pain, swelling, and even nausea. If bitten, victims should seek medical attention.
- Common European Adder – This is one of the most common venomous snakes in all of Europe. Consequently, it’s responsible for more bites than almost any other species. For a healthy adult, there isn’t too much of a risk of its venom besides some pain, swelling, and nausea, as deaths are very rare, but bite victims should always seek medical attention.
- Brown Bear – Bear attacks are exceptionally rare, even when they’re encountered on foot. Nevertheless, they may become overly aggressive if they feel provoked or threatened in some way. If they’re spotted out in the wild, it is best to stay calm and keep your distance.
- Gray Wolf – The wolf is not as dangerous as its fearsome reputation suggests. Attacks are probably no more common than the brown bear. But they have been known to occasionally kill a person for food.
Endangered Animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Because so much of the country is still covered in forests and mountains, Bosnia has avoided the same loss of wildlife as experienced by other European countries. But habitat loss or overhunting have still put several species in danger.
- Eurasian Lynx – This big predatory cat still thrives in many parts of Central Asia, but human activity caused it to become completely extinct from Bosnia and most of Europe. Following its reintroduction into the Dinaric Alps in the late 20th century, it is once again seen throughout some parts of the Balkans.
- Balkan Snow Vole – Found in the mountains and hills of the Balkans, this unique and elusive rodent is the only living member of its genus. It is currently vulnerable to becoming extinct due to its limited range.
- Illyrian Spined Loach – First discovered in 2007, this freshwater fish is believed to be quite rare, and not much is known about it. The species is currently classified as critically endangered by the IUCN Red List.
- Adriatic Salmon – This endangered fish is found naturally along four river systems that flow into the Adriatic Sea. Overfishing and damming have put it at risk of becoming extinct.
Stunningly beautiful wings
First evolved 100 million years ago!
They are so named because they "march" in armies of worms from one crop to another in search of food
Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!
Has a curved, upturned beak!
Can reach speeds of 30 km/h!
Found everywhere around the world!
Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.
Detects prey using echolocation!
Bed bugs feed for 4-12 minutes.
Rock paintings of bees date back 15,000 years
There are more than 350,000 different species
Not all birds are able to fly!
The biscuit beetle form a symbiotic relationship with yeast
They typically prey on insects!
Females glue egg cases to furniture
A dominant predator in it's environment!
Can live its entire life indoors
The most common species of bee!
There are thought to be up 17,500 species!
The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.
Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!
First domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians!
The larvae of a moth or butterfly!
There are nearly 3,000 different species!
There are about 3,000 documented species!
Natively found in the European mountains!
First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!
Cicadas have one of the longest insect lifespans
Dated to be around 300 million years old!
Pupae are able to undergo diapause to survive poor fruit yield years and winter.
The most common raptor in the UK!
European adders are the only snake that lives above the Arctic Circle.
Found throughout the European continent!
The common furniture beetle feeds exclusively on wood
House spiders have the ability to eat most insects in a home.
Also known as the Great Northern Diver
A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.
Most active in wet weather!
They can fly 35 mph and dive 150 feet below water.
There are nearly 1.5 billion worldwide!
There are 93 different crab groups
Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings
Many are critically endangered species!
Male crickets can produce sounds by rubbing their wings together
A group of these birds is called a Murder.
Have an energetic and playful nature!
These canine’s spots are distinctive in their placement, including different shaped markings, making them unique.
There are around 40 different species!
The Devil’s coach horse beetle can emit a noxious substance to deter predators
First domesticated in South-East Asia!
Dog ticks feed on dogs and other mammals
First domesticated 5,000 years ago!
Found in Europe, Africa and Asia!
It's larvae are carnivorous!
Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!
The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight
Has exceptional eyesight!
They are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female organs
There are nearly 2,000 different species!
Are known to guard the muddy banks!
Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!
The shy eurasian bullfinch prefers to forage very close to cover.
The Eurasian Eagle-owl is the second largest owl in the world with a wingspan up to six feet!
The Eurasian jay has the ability to mimic other sounds
They can eat up to 250 bees per day!
They are frequent visitors to backyard feeders, especially those containing niger seeds.
Male robins are so aggressive and territorial that they will attack their own reflections.
The fastest creatures on the planet!
The fallow deer has more variation in its coat colors than most other deer.
False spiders actually prey on black widow spiders and other hazardous spiders
Ferrets can be trained to do tricks like dogs!
Found across mainland Europe and Asia!
Its name comes from the fact that people once believed it was born in fire
The firefly produces some of the most efficient light in the world
Adult fleas can jump up to 7 inches in the air
There are more than 240,000 different species!
Can glide up to 90 meters!
Only 12 species are considered "true foxes"
There are around 7,000 different species!
Fruit flies are among the most common research animals in the world
They make many sounds when trying to attract a mate.
The most common type of urban roach
Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!
Males form large mating swarms at dusk
Most closely related to the Sheep!
The goldcrest never starts moving and needs to consume for most of the day to survive. Therefore, in the colder months, it's best that eat 90% a day.
Their calls sound like high-pitched screams, but they are quiet most of the time.
Migrates between Europe and Asia!
There are 29 different species!
There are 11,000 known species!
Can spot a dead animal from thousands of feet away
One of the most invasive species in the world
Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!
Can reach speeds of over 50 mph!
Many hawk moth caterpillars eat toxins from plants, but don’t sequester them the way milkweed butterflies do. Most toxins are excreted.
Thought to be one of the oldest mammals on Earth!
Inhabits wetlands around the world!
Natively found in the Scottish Highlands!
There are only 8 recognized species!
Honey buzzards are medium-sized raptors that earned their names by raiding the nests of bees and wasps.
Stunning bird with a stinky way to deter predators!
Has evolved over 50 million years!
Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.
Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!
Some huntsman spiders have an interesting way of moving around. Some cartwheel while others do handsprings or backflips.
There are an estimated 30 million species!
Can maintain speeds of 16 km/h!
The jackdaw tends to mate for life with a single partner
Some can jump 50 times the length of their bodies
Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!
Lazarus Lizards can communicate through chemical and visual signals.
Does not hibernate during the bitter Arctic winter!
While linnets are monogamous during mating season, they do not mate for life. While breeding pairs are together, the males are highly territorial and will defend the nesting site and the surrounding area.
There are around 5,000 different species!
Each locust can eat its weight in plants each day.
Ear tufts make it look bigger!
Often hangs upside down while feeding!
They are found across Europe, Asia and Africa!
There are 2,500 known species worldwide!
They have a symbiotic relationship with ants.
Some species have a poisonous bite!
Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!
Adult Mole crickets may fly as far as 5 miles during mating season and are active most of the year.
Has characteristics of two or more breeds!
Feeds on aquatic insects and water-spiders!
Only the female mosquito actually sucks blood
There are 250,000 different species!
Found on every continent on Earth!
The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!
Roamed Asia and Europe for around 100,000 years!
Able to regrow lost or damaged limbs!
Named more than 1,000 years ago!
There are more than 5,000 species.
Northern pintails migrate at night with speeds reaching 48 miles per hour!
The fangs of a nose-horned viper can be as long as half an inch!
Depending on the habitat and climate, these beetles can live between 2 to 10 years, often staying in their larval stage for several years, making them extremely dangerous to wooden structures.
Inhabits dark underwater caves
Females are about four times the size of males
The tradition of hiding your face with a napkin or towel while eating this bird was begun by a priest who was a friend of the great French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin.
They reuse nesting sites for 70 years!
There are 13 different species worldwide
The owl can rotate its head some 270 degrees
Teachers in schools often use the evolution of the peppered moth as a good example of Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!
Thought to have been domesticated in 9,000 BC!
They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.
Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas
A pine marten can jump from tree to tree similar to a squirrel.
There are 500 different species!
The rarest amphibian in the UK!
There are 30 different species worldwide!
The mantis can turn its head 180 degrees.
Inhabits deciduous forests!
Caterpillars squirt formic acid!
Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!
There are more than 300 different species!
Known to wash their food before eating it!
The only hibernating canine!
Omnivores that eat anything!
Rat snakes are constrictors from the Colubridae family of snakes.
They build their nests off the ground in tree holes, cavities, stone walls, and roofs
Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!
There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!
The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.
The roe is one of the most popular game animals in Europe
Will mate with the entire flock!
Its scientific name, lagopus, is Ancient Greek for “hare” and “foot,” referring to its feathered feet and toes.
Ferrets were used during the Revolutionary War to keep down the rat population.
There are more than 700 different species!
The sand crab burrows beneath the sand with its tail
Males turn green in spring!
There are around 2,000 known species!
The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner
Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!
Around 35 million in the English countryside!
The short-eared owl is one of the most widespread owl species in the world, covering five continents.
The spinal column of the shrew Scutisorex somereni is so strong and reinforced that it can support the weight of an adult human.
There are 2,000 different species worldwide!
Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.
Found widely throughout British gardens!
They glide around on one foot, which is aided by the slime they produce
Has up to 45 eggs per egg case
There are nearly 1,000 different species!
There are around 4,000 known species worldwide
One of the largest owl species in the world!
A male song thrush can have over 100 phrases in his repertoire of songs and can imitate pet birds, telephones and other man-made objects.
They spend most of their time underground!
There are 140 different species!
They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.
Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 3,000 different species!
Average adults weigh about 200 grams!
They can’t sing like other birds.
Populations have been affected by pollution!
The most widespread owl in Europe!
Their mounds can be up to 9 meters tall!
The skate with the biggest spines!
The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.
They inject hosts with a chemical that stops them from feeling the pain of the bite
The adult tiger beetle is one of the fastest land insects in the world
The bright colors of this moth are a signal to predators that it has a terrible taste.
Tornjaks are very adaptable and can live harmoniously in packs as they get along well with other dogs.
Can live until they are more than 150 years old!
Found in warmer jungles and forests!
Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.
Vipers are one of the most widespread groups of snakes and inhabit most
There are 30 different species worldwide!
There are around 75,000 recognised species!
Has been domesticated for thousands of years!
The largest Vole species in the UK!
The Wax Moth larvae are more dangerous than the adult.
The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!
There are two different types of white ferrets!
Males have a top tusk to sharpen the bottom one!
Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!
Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.
This animal can roll up into a ball
Unlike most spiders, woodlouse spiders don’t build a web.
There are 200 different species!
They feign death by making their bodies limp and closing their eyes.
It interbreeds with the pine bunting
Bosnian Animals List
Animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What animals live in Bosnia?
Some of the most common mammals in Bosnia are deer, boar, rodents, bats, foxes, hares, chamois, otters, badgers, weasels, and martens. The country also contains plenty of water fowl, birds of prey, game birds, song birds, frogs, freshwater fish, and invertebrates.
Does Bosnia have bears?
The Eurasian brown bear is found in some of the more remote forests and mountains of Bosnia.
Are there snakes in Bosnia?
Bosnia has several species of snakes, three which are poisonous: the nose-horned viper, the common adder, and the meadow viper. Some of the non-venomous snakes include the Balkan whip snake, Aesculapian snake, grass snake, and smooth snake.
Do they have squirrels in Bosnia?
Yes, Bosnia is home to the common Eurasian red squirrel.