Below you can find a complete list of Estonian animals. We currently track 218 animals in Estonia and are adding more every day!
Estonia is one of the least inhabited countries in Europe. Its population of 1.3 million people is spread out over some 17.5 million square miles, leaving its beaches, pasturelands, marshes, and forests largely untenanted by human beings though not by wildlife. Estonia abounds with interesting mammalian species like Eurasian lynx, wild boars, brown bears, moose, flying squirrels, beavers, and grey wolves. While these fauna is not unique to Estonia, they are comparatively rare in other parts of Europe.
Estonia is also widely heralded as one of the world’s great bird-watching destinations. It’s situated on the great East-Atlantic migratory pathway used by swans, geese, ducks, divers, cranes, and Arctic waterfowl. All in all, Estonia is home to 64 distinct mammalian species and more than 300 species of birds.
The Official National Animal of Estonia
Estonia definitely has a love/hate relationship with its official national animal, the grey wolf. Estonian legends about the predatory behavior of these canny, undomesticated canines date back to medieval times. But while wolves may play predators in Estonian fables, there hasn’t been a recorded wolf attack upon humans in more than 150 years. As of 2018, there were approximately 260 wolves in Estonia, divided into 20 to 25 packs. Estonian wolves live in remote wilderness areas, where it is legal to hunt them as a way of keeping their numbers down as biologists say the optimal number of wolves is 200 animals.
Where To Find The Top Wild Animals in Estonia
Estonia has five outstanding national parks where many varieties of rare fauna can be spotted:
- Lahemaa National Park: Lahemaa National Park in northern Estonia contains forest and wetland habitats that are home to moose, brown bears, wolves, red deer, Eurasian lynx, and other rare animals. Not only is Lahemaa Estonia’s largest national park, but it’s also one of the largest national parks in Europe. Lahemaa is fewer than 50 miles distant from the capital city Tallinn, so it’s easy for a tourist to Estonia to add a visit to his or her itinerary.
- Korvemaa Nature Reserve: Korvemaa Nature Reserve is Estonia’s premier birdwatching destination where lucky visitors may catch a glimpse of endangered species like the black stork, the heather cock, or the golden eagle. The reserve is also home to grey wolves, brown bears, Eurasian lynx, and other wildlife. Once, European mink abounded here, but the local mink population is now thought to be extinct from over-trapping and habitat erosion.
- Soomaa National Park: For much of the year, Soomaa National Park in the Estonian fen country is only accessible by kayak or canoe. This is a great place to observe the country’s beaver population as well as elk, wild boar, brown bear, grey wolf, and Eurasian lynx.
- Matsalu National Park: Matsalu National Park was founded as a bird sanctuary in 1957. It’s been estimated that more than 2 million waterfowl fly over Matsalu Bay every year, including swans; goldeneye, bluebill, and tufted ducks; and barnacle and graylag geese. All told, more than 250 bird species have been identified at Matsalu National Park during the migration season.
- Vilsandi National Park: Vilsandi grew from an avian preserve that was founded in 1910. It consists of more than 150 islands in the Baltic Sea that provide nesting grounds for nearly 250 bird species.
The Most Dangerous Animals In Estonia Today
Estonia is home to a number of animals that can be dangerous if they’re provoked.
- Grey wolves: While unprovoked attacks by healthy wolves are not completely unknown, the vast majority of wolves pose no threats to human safety. Wolves may be predators, but they prefer to steer clear of humans.
- Eurasian lynx: Although cornered lynx will defend itself with tooth and claw, these wild cats typically avoid people. In fact, humans present more of a threat to lynx than lynx do to people: In certain parts of the world, lynx are still trapped for their pelts.
- Brown bears: Brown bears generally avoid human beings, but they are known for their unpredictable temperaments. Unprovoked attacks are not completely unknown, so they must be classified as potentially dangerous predators. Female bears with cubs can be particularly aggressive.
- Adders: Estonia is also to the species of snake known as the adder. These snakes are considered an endangered species in Estonia and are under legal protection. They generally try to elude humans but will bite if they’re picked up. Adder bites are uncomfortable but only require hospitalization in a small number of cases.
Endangered Animals In Estonia
Destruction of forest and meadow habitats means that several Estonian fauna specimens are in danger of becoming extinct. These include mammals, birds, and insects.
Stunningly beautiful wings
First evolved 100 million years ago!
They are so named because they "march" in armies of worms from one crop to another in search of food
One of the most popular food fishes in the world
Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!
Has a curved, upturned beak!
Can reach speeds of 30 km/h!
Found everywhere around the world!
Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.
Detects prey using echolocation!
Builds a dam from sticks and leaves!
Bed bugs feed for 4-12 minutes.
Rock paintings of bees date back 15,000 years
There are more than 350,000 different species
Not all birds are able to fly!
The biscuit beetle form a symbiotic relationship with yeast
They typically prey on insects!
Can live its entire life indoors
The most common species of bee!
There are thought to be up 17,500 species!
The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.
Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!
First domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians!
The larvae of a moth or butterfly!
There are nearly 3,000 different species!
There are about 3,000 documented species!
Natively found in the European mountains!
First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!
Dated to be around 300 million years old!
Pupae are able to undergo diapause to survive poor fruit yield years and winter.
The most common raptor in the UK!
European adders are the only snake that lives above the Arctic Circle.
Found throughout the European continent!
The common furniture beetle feeds exclusively on wood
House spiders have the ability to eat most insects in a home.
Also known as the Great Northern Diver
A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.
Most active in wet weather!
They can fly 35 mph and dive 150 feet below water.
There are nearly 1.5 billion worldwide!
There are 93 different crab groups
Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings
Many are critically endangered species!
Male crickets can produce sounds by rubbing their wings together
A group of these birds is called a Murder.
There are around 40 different species!
First domesticated in South-East Asia!
Dog ticks feed on dogs and other mammals
First domesticated 5,000 years ago!
Found in Europe, Africa and Asia!
It's larvae are carnivorous!
Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!
The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight
Has exceptional eyesight!
They are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female organs
There are nearly 2,000 different species!
Are known to guard the muddy banks!
Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!
Eiders are sexually dimorphic, with males being larger and more colorful.
A very bold and ferocious predator!
The shy eurasian bullfinch prefers to forage very close to cover.
The Eurasian Eagle-owl is the second largest owl in the world with a wingspan up to six feet!
The Eurasian jay has the ability to mimic other sounds
They are frequent visitors to backyard feeders, especially those containing niger seeds.
Male robins are so aggressive and territorial that they will attack their own reflections.
The fastest creatures on the planet!
The fallow deer has more variation in its coat colors than most other deer.
False spiders actually prey on black widow spiders and other hazardous spiders
Ferrets can be trained to do tricks like dogs!
Found across mainland Europe and Asia!
The firefly produces some of the most efficient light in the world
Adult fleas can jump up to 7 inches in the air
There are more than 240,000 different species!
Can glide up to 90 meters!
Only 12 species are considered "true foxes"
There are around 7,000 different species!
Fruit flies are among the most common research animals in the world
The most common type of urban roach
Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!
Males form large mating swarms at dusk
Most closely related to the Sheep!
The goldcrest never starts moving and needs to consume for most of the day to survive. Therefore, in the colder months, it's best that eat 90% a day.
Their calls sound like high-pitched screams, but they are quiet most of the time.
Migrates between Europe and Asia!
There are 29 different species!
There are 11,000 known species!
One of the most invasive species in the world
Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!
Can reach speeds of over 50 mph!
Many hawk moth caterpillars eat toxins from plants, but don’t sequester them the way milkweed butterflies do. Most toxins are excreted.
Thought to be one of the oldest mammals on Earth!
Inhabits wetlands around the world!
Natively found in the Scottish Highlands!
There are only 8 recognized species!
Honey buzzards are medium-sized raptors that earned their names by raiding the nests of bees and wasps.
Stunning bird with a stinky way to deter predators!
Has evolved over 50 million years!
Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.
Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!
Some huntsman spiders have an interesting way of moving around. Some cartwheel while others do handsprings or backflips.
There are an estimated 30 million species!
Some can jump 50 times the length of their bodies
Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!
Does not hibernate during the bitter Arctic winter!
While linnets are monogamous during mating season, they do not mate for life. While breeding pairs are together, the males are highly territorial and will defend the nesting site and the surrounding area.
There are around 5,000 different species!
Each locust can eat its weight in plants each day.
Ear tufts make it look bigger!
Often hangs upside down while feeding!
They are found across Europe, Asia and Africa!
There are 2,500 known species worldwide!
They have a symbiotic relationship with ants.
They line their nests with their feathers
Some species have a poisonous bite!
Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!
Has characteristics of two or more breeds!
Feeds on aquatic insects and water-spiders!
Only the female mosquito actually sucks blood
There are 250,000 different species!
Found on every continent on Earth!
The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!
Roamed Asia and Europe for around 100,000 years!
Nematodes range in size from 1/10 of an inch to 28 feet long
Able to regrow lost or damaged limbs!
Named more than 1,000 years ago!
There are more than 5,000 species.
Depending on the habitat and climate, these beetles can live between 2 to 10 years, often staying in their larval stage for several years, making them extremely dangerous to wooden structures.
Females are about four times the size of males
The tradition of hiding your face with a napkin or towel while eating this bird was begun by a priest who was a friend of the great French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin.
They reuse nesting sites for 70 years!
There are 13 different species worldwide
The owl can rotate its head some 270 degrees
Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!
Thought to have been domesticated in 9,000 BC!
They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.
Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas
A pine marten can jump from tree to tree similar to a squirrel.
There are 500 different species!
The rarest amphibian in the UK!
There are 30 different species worldwide!
Inhabits deciduous forests!
Caterpillars squirt formic acid!
Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!
There are more than 300 different species!
Known to wash their food before eating it!
The only hibernating canine!
Omnivores that eat anything!
A male red deer shows his age in his antlers, which become longer and more branched every year.
Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!
There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!
The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.
Will mate with the entire flock!
Its scientific name, lagopus, is Ancient Greek for “hare” and “foot,” referring to its feathered feet and toes.
Ferrets were used during the Revolutionary War to keep down the rat population.
There are more than 700 different species!
The sand crab burrows beneath the sand with its tail
Males turn green in spring!
There are around 2,000 known species!
The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner
Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!
Around 35 million in the English countryside!
The short-eared owl is one of the most widespread owl species in the world, covering five continents.
The spinal column of the shrew Scutisorex somereni is so strong and reinforced that it can support the weight of an adult human.
There are 2,000 different species worldwide!
Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.
Found widely throughout British gardens!
They glide around on one foot, which is aided by the slime they produce
Has up to 45 eggs per egg case
There are nearly 1,000 different species!
There are around 4,000 known species worldwide
One of the largest owl species in the world!
A male song thrush can have over 100 phrases in his repertoire of songs and can imitate pet birds, telephones and other man-made objects.
They spend most of their time underground!
There are 140 different species!
They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.
Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 3,000 different species!
Average adults weigh about 200 grams!
They can’t sing like other birds.
Populations have been affected by pollution!
The most widespread owl in Europe!
Their mounds can be up to 9 meters tall!
The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.
They inject hosts with a chemical that stops them from feeling the pain of the bite
The adult tiger beetle is one of the fastest land insects in the world
The bright colors of this moth are a signal to predators that it has a terrible taste.
Can live until they are more than 150 years old!
Found in warmer jungles and forests!
Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.
The Ural owl can rotate its head up to 270 degrees
Vipers are one of the most widespread groups of snakes and inhabit most
There are 30 different species worldwide!
There are around 75,000 recognised species!
Has been domesticated for thousands of years!
The largest Vole species in the UK!
The Wax Moth larvae are more dangerous than the adult.
The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!
There are two different types of white ferrets!
Males have a top tusk to sharpen the bottom one!
Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!
Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.
This animal can roll up into a ball
Unlike most spiders, woodlouse spiders don’t build a web.
There are 200 different species!
The woolly rhinoceros roamed the earth between three and a half million and 14,000 years ago.
They feign death by making their bodies limp and closing their eyes.
It interbreeds with the pine bunting
Estonian Animals List
Animals in Estonia FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What animals live in Estonia?
Animals native to Estonia include grey wolves, brown bears, flying squirrels, Eurasian lynx, moose, elks, red deer, roe deer, and wild boar.
Are there bears in Estonia?
Yes, Estonia has the highest bear population density in Europe. It’s estimated that approximately 700 brown bears make their homes in Estonia’s dense forests.
Are there snakes in Estonia?
The adder is the most common snake in Estonia. Estonia is also home to small, legless, burrowing lizards called blindworms. These unique lizards are often mistaken for snakes.
Are there moose in Estonia?
It’s been estimated that as many as 12,000 moose live in the boggy outskirts of Estonia’s forests.