Below you can find a complete list of Mongolian animals. We currently track 224 animals in Mongolia and are adding more every day!
The country of Mongolia is home to a variety of unique animals. Some of the more well-known animals include Bactrian camels, musk deer, and the Black-tailed gazelle. The snow leopard is one of the rarer species in Mongolia along with the snowcock. This country is unique in that it has an abundance of many types of animals including 139 mammal species, 449 bird species, 22 reptile species, 76 fish species, and 6 amphibian species.
The Official National Animal of Mongolia
The national animal of Mongolia is the Przewalski’s horse. It’s also known as the Mongolian horse or the Takh. The Przewalski’s horse is smaller than the typical domestic horse growing to just 4 feet tall. This horse is related to the zebra and has a black stripe on its back. Though these look a lot like domestic horses, they are born to be wild!
This unique horse is a symbol of strength and endurance. Its powerful body is designed to withstand the extremely cold, windy conditions in Mongolia. Takh means ‘spirit’ or ‘holy horse.’ Legends surround these unique horses. One legend is that Genghis Khan rode a Takh as he strived to conquer the world.
Przewalski horses were once categorized as Extinct. Many were the victims of big game hunters or lost their habitat due to farmland expansion. However, with the help of breeding programs, their population has escaped the category of Extinct and is slowly growing. Now, they’re categorized as Endangered. Scientists estimate there are 178 mature individuals alive today.
The Most Dangerous Animals in Mongolia Today
Like other countries, Mongolia is home to both non-aggressive as well as dangerous animals. Some of the most dangerous animals in Mongolia include:
- Common Adder-The common adder is one of four venomous snakes living in Mongolia. Though they are not aggressive, they do bite if threatened. This snake blends well with its environment, so many bites occur when they are stepped on. Fortunately, there are only 14 recorded human deaths from common adders since 1876! Though a common adder’s bite is not likely to be fatal, it is very painful and can require a trip to the hospital for treatment.
- Halys Pit Viper-This is another venomous snake found in Mongolia. The number of humans bitten by the Halys Pit Viper is unknown. However, a bite from this snake causes swelling, bruising, and blistering where the bite occurred. In short, their bite is painful, but not likely to be fatal.
- Mongolian Death Worm-This animal is said to live beneath the sands of the Gobi Desert. This is one of those creatures with a lot of stories surrounding it that vary in accuracy. In fact, a Russian author named Yefremov wrote a science fiction novel based on this animal. It is said to measure two feet long and can spray venom at its prey. Other stories claim a Mongolian Death Worm’s skin is poisonous and can cause death if it’s touched. Through most of the last century, many individuals claim to have seen this animal. But some scientists say what people are seeing is the Tartar sand boa constrictor. This snake doesn’t have any of the characteristics attributed to the Mongolian Death Worm.
- Mongolian Wolf-This large predator is a species of gray wolf living in Mongolia. Like other types of wolves, the Mongolian wolf likes to stay hidden from people. But, if someone wandered into this wolf’s territory or approach its young, it would likely turn aggressive.
Where to Find the Top Wild Animals in Mongolia
Animals in Mongolia that are Endangered or at risk of extinction are fortunate to have some safe areas of land to live on. These include national parks and wildlife preserves. Discover where to find the top wild animals in Mongolia:
- Przewalski’s Horse – The habitat of these sturdy horses includes steppes and forests. Hustai National Park is one place in Mongolia where these horses wander.
- Siberian Musk Deer – These unique animals live on the taiga and in mountainous areas. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is home to many of them. Their population has decreased in part due to big game hunters.
- Brown Bear – The habitat of this large predator is mountainous desert. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park serves as home to many of these brown bears.
- Snow Leopard – The habitat of another large predator namely the snow leopard includes mountainous areas and cliffs. Some of them reside in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park.
- Altai Snow Cocks – These birds look like partridges and live in the mountains. Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park is home to many of them.
- Bactrian Camels – This animal lives in the harsh climate of the Gobi Desert. They are found in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park as well.
Endangered Animals in Mongolia
Mongolia is home to many animals that are either Endangered or Critically Endangered. Habitat loss, loss of food source and big game hunting are all reasons for decreasing animal populations. Some examples of Endangered animals in Mongolia:
Eats up to 2kg of food per day!
First evolved 100 million years ago!
Renew their horns every year!
They are so named because they "march" in armies of worms from one crop to another in search of food
Asian lady beetles infest indoor spaces, but they do not reproduce indoors.
Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!
Has a curved, upturned beak!
The camel with two humps!
People spin clothing and fishing nets out of these spiders’ silk.
There are over 1768 known species!
Found everywhere around the world!
Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.
Detects prey using echolocation!
There are 8 different species!
Bed bugs feed for 4-12 minutes.
Rock paintings of bees date back 15,000 years
There are more than 350,000 different species
Not all birds are able to fly!
The biscuit beetle form a symbiotic relationship with yeast
They typically prey on insects!
A dominant predator in it's environment!
Can live its entire life indoors
The most common species of bee!
There are thought to be up 17,500 species!
Can survive without water for 10 months!
The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.
Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!
First domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians!
The larvae of a moth or butterfly!
There are nearly 3,000 different species!
There are about 3,000 documented species!
First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!
They are excellent “guard geese”
This vulture can fly at great heights. At least one was found a few thousand feet from the top of Mount Everest.
Dated to be around 300 million years old!
Pupae are able to undergo diapause to survive poor fruit yield years and winter.
The most common raptor in the UK!
European adders are the only snake that lives above the Arctic Circle.
The common furniture beetle feeds exclusively on wood
House spiders have the ability to eat most insects in a home.
A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.
There are nearly 1.5 million worldwide!
There are 93 different crab groups
Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings
Many are critically endangered species!
Male crickets can produce sounds by rubbing their wings together
Have changed little in 200 million years!
A group of these birds is called a Murder.
There are around 40 different species!
First domesticated in South-East Asia!
Dog ticks feed on dogs and other mammals
First domesticated 5,000 years ago!
Found in Europe, Africa and Asia!
It's larvae are carnivorous!
Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!
The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight
Has exceptional eyesight!
They are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female organs
There are nearly 2,000 different species!
Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!
Elasmotherium might have had a monstrous horn, giving it the name "The Siberian Unicorn."
Adult males can jump eight feet vertically
A very bold and ferocious predator!
Eats 20% of its weight daily!
The Eurasian jay has the ability to mimic other sounds
Eurasian lynxes can survive extreme weather up to elevations of 18,000 feet
Coloring depends on location.
Male robins are so aggressive and territorial that they will attack their own reflections.
The fastest creatures on the planet!
False spiders actually prey on black widow spiders and other hazardous spiders
Found across mainland Europe and Asia!
The firefly produces some of the most efficient light in the world
Adult fleas can jump up to 7 inches in the air
There are more than 240,000 different species!
Can glide up to 90 meters!
There are 12 different species in the world!
There are around 7,000 different species!
Fruit flies are among the most common research animals in the world
Named for the Arabic word for love poems
There are thought to be over 2,000 species!
Originally known as the Desert Rat!
The most common type of urban roach
Some cryptozoologists think that Gigantopithecus survives to this day as "The Bigfoot."
Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!
Males form large mating swarms at dusk
Most closely related to the Sheep!
The goldcrest never starts moving and needs to consume for most of the day to survive. Therefore, in the colder months, it's best that eat 90% a day.
Migrates between Europe and Asia!
There are 29 different species!
There are 11,000 known species!
Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!
Can reach speeds of over 40 mph!
Many hawk moth caterpillars eat toxins from plants, but don’t sequester them the way milkweed butterflies do. Most toxins are excreted.
Thought to be one of the oldest mammals on Earth!
Inhabits wetlands around the world!
There are only 8 recognized species!
Stunning bird with a stinky way to deter predators!
Has evolved over 50 million years!
Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.
Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!
Some huntsman spiders have an interesting way of moving around. Some cartwheel while others do handsprings or backflips.
Found in swamps, marshes and wetlands!
There are an estimated 30 million species!
The jackdaw tends to mate for life with a single partner
Tiny rodent with a kangaroo-like jump!
Some can jump 50 times the length of their bodies
Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!
The offspring of a lion and tiger parents!
There are around 5,000 different species!
Each locust can eat its weight in plants each day.
Ear tufts make it look bigger!
Often hangs upside down while feeding!
They are found across Europe, Asia and Africa!
A marmot spends 80% of its life below ground
Found throughout Asia, India and China!
There are 2,500 known species worldwide!
They have a symbiotic relationship with ants.
Some species have a poisonous bite!
Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!
Range in size from just 1 to 3 foot!
Has characteristics of two or more breeds!
Some species are thought to carry a weak venom!
There are around 260 known species!
Feeds on aquatic insects and water-spiders!
Only the female mosquito actually sucks blood
There are 250,000 different species!
Found on every continent on Earth!
The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!
The muskrat can stay underwater up to 17 minutes at a time
Roamed Asia and Europe for around 100,000 years!
Able to regrow lost or damaged limbs!
Named more than 1,000 years ago!
There are more than 5,000 species.
Females are about four times the size of males
The tradition of hiding your face with a napkin or towel while eating this bird was begun by a priest who was a friend of the great French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin.
There are 13 different species worldwide
Oviraptor means "egg thief" or "egg seizer," though they were quite protective of their own eggs.
The owl can rotate its head some 270 degrees
Can live for up to 100 years!
The eyespots on this butterfly’s wings deter predators from attacking.
Teachers in schools often use the evolution of the peppered moth as a good example of Darwin’s theory of natural selection.
Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!
Thought to have been domesticated in 9,000 BC!
They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.
Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas
Pit vipers's fangs fold up into their mouths when they don't need them.
There are 500 different species!
There are 30 different species worldwide!
These parrot-headed dinosaurs had beaks and feather-like quills on their tails!
Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!
There are more than 50 different species!
Omnivores that eat anything!
Rat snakes are constrictors from the Colubridae family of snakes.
It's horns are made from keratin!
Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!
There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!
The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.
Will mate with the entire flock!
Their fur has been considered a luxury item since the Middle Ages
Ferrets were used during the Revolutionary War to keep down the rat population.
Large noses help filter out dust
There are more than 700 different species!
Males turn green in spring!
Sarkastadon was one of the largest land mammal carnivores of all time!
There are around 2,000 known species!
The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner
Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!
Around 35 million in the English countryside!
The spinal column of the shrew Scutisorex somereni is so strong and reinforced that it can support the weight of an adult human.
There are 2,000 different species worldwide!
There’s a population of Siberian ibex in New Mexico
Also known as the Amur tiger!
Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.
Found widely throughout British gardens!
They glide around on one foot, which is aided by the slime they produce
Has up to 45 eggs per egg case
There are nearly 1,000 different species!
There are around 3,000 known species worldwide
Unlike other big cats, snow leopards don’t roar.
There are 140 different species!
They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.
Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!
There are more than 3,000 different species!
Average adults weigh about 200 grams!
They can’t sing like other birds.
Populations have been affected by pollution!
Tarantula hawks are excellent pollinators, especially for milkweed.
Tarbosaurus‘ name “bataar” is a mispelling of the Mongolian word “baatar,” which means “hero.”
Their mounds can be up to 9 meters tall!
The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.
They inject hosts with a chemical that stops them from feeling the pain of the bite
The largest feline in the world!
The adult tiger beetle is one of the fastest land insects in the world
Can live until they are more than 150 years old!
Found in warmer jungles and forests!
Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.
Vinegaroons can spray 19 times before the glands are depleted
Vipers are one of the most widespread groups of snakes and inhabit most
There are 30 different species worldwide!
There are around 75,000 recognised species!
Has been domesticated for thousands of years!
The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!
There are two different types of white ferrets!
It is one of the biggest birds of prey.
None have been seen in the wild for 50 years!
Males have a top tusk to sharpen the bottom one!
Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!
Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.
This animal can roll up into a ball
Unlike most spiders, woodlouse spiders don’t build a web.
There are 200 different species!
The woolly rhinoceros roamed the earth between three and a half million and 14,000 years ago.
There are only a few left in the wild!
There are around 75 different species!
Mongolian Animals List
Animals in Mongolia FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What animals live in Mongolia?
There are a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish living in Mongolia. Przewalski’s horse (once considered Extinct) is one of the most notable members of Mongolian wildlife.
Are there tigers in Mongolia?
No, but Mongolia is home to a couple of cats including the Pallas cat and the snow leopard. The Pallas cat looks a lot like a domestic cat in a household!
What is the most common animal in Mongolia?
While many animals are Endangered in Mongolia you can see some in large groups. Wild sheep have been seen in herds including thousands of members.
Are there big cats in Mongolia?
The snow leopard is one example. The Pallas cat is another member of the Felidae family in Mongolia.