Animals in Mongolia

Updated: March 6, 2023
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Below you can find a complete list of Mongolian animals. We currently track 246 animals in Mongolia and are adding more every day!

The country of Mongolia is home to a variety of unique animals. Some of the more well-known animals include Bactrian camels, musk deer, and the Black-tailed gazelle. The snow leopard is one of the rarer species in Mongolia along with the snowcock. This country is unique in that it has an abundance of many types of animals including 139 mammal species, 449 bird species, 22 reptile species, 76 fish species, and 6 amphibian species.

Because Mongolia has varied terrain and is one of the largest countries in the world, it provides diverse and rich animal life. It is famous for its rolling plains, high plateaus, mountains, and desert lands. Mongolia also can be quite brutal and unwelcoming due to its cold and dry climate. There are even devastating cold snaps called dzuds that decimate animal populations.

Bactrian Camels live in the Gobi Desert and are some of the unique animals of Mongolia.

©Tiarescott, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons – License

The Official National Animal of Mongolia

The national animal of Mongolia is the Przewalski’s horse. It’s also known as the Mongolian horse or the Takh. The Przewalski’s horse is smaller than the typical domestic horse growing to just 4 feet tall. This horse is related to the zebra and has a black stripe on its back. Though these look a lot like domestic horses, they are born to be wild!

This unique horse is a symbol of strength and endurance. Its powerful body is designed to withstand the extremely cold, windy conditions in Mongolia. Takh means ‘spirit’ or ‘holy horse.’ Legends surround these unique horses. One legend is that Genghis Khan rode a Takh as he strived to conquer the world.

Przewalski horses were once categorized as Extinct. Many were the victims of big game hunters or lost their habitat due to farmland expansion. However, with the help of breeding programs, their population has escaped the category of Extinct and is slowly growing. Now, they’re categorized as Endangered. Scientists estimate there are 178 mature individuals alive today.

Przewalski's horses stand in the middle of the steppe.

Przewalski’s horses are the national animal of Mongolia.


The Most Dangerous Animals in Mongolia Today

Like other countries, Mongolia is home to both non-aggressive as well as dangerous animals. The type of these animals depends on the terrain from which they are found. Only ten percent of Mongolia’s land lies outside areas that are stricken with extreme weather conditions. Harsh conditions tend to produce harsh animals!

When it comes to humans, what makes a lot of these animals particularly dangerous is the remoteness of Mongolia. If one happens to be attacked by one of these deadly animals, the likelihood of survival without severe consequences is not very high because of the lack of access to hospitals and proper care. Indigenous people have been able to live the adapt to the dangerous wildlife, but any tourists to Mongolia should become educated on what lies in the wild.

Some of the most dangerous animals in Mongolia include:

  • Common Adder – The common adder is one of four venomous snakes living in Mongolia. Though they are not aggressive, they do bite if threatened. This snake blends well with its environment, so many bites occur when they are stepped on. Fortunately, there are only 14 recorded human deaths from common adders since 1876! Though a common adder’s bite is not likely to be fatal, it is very painful and can require a trip to the hospital for treatment.
  • Halys Pit Viper – This is another venomous snake found in Mongolia. The number of humans bitten by the Halys Pit Viper is unknown. However, a bite from this snake causes swelling, bruising, and blistering where the bite occurred. In short, their bite is painful, but not likely to be fatal.
  • Mongolian Death Worm – This animal is said to live beneath the sands of the Gobi Desert. This is one of those creatures with a lot of stories surrounding it that vary in accuracy. In fact, a Russian author named Yefremov wrote a science fiction novel based on this animal. It is said to measure two feet long and can spray venom at its prey. Other stories claim a Mongolian Death Worm’s skin is poisonous and can cause death if it’s touched. Through most of the last century, many individuals claim to have seen this animal. But some scientists say what people are seeing is the Tartar sand boa constrictor. This snake doesn’t have any of the characteristics attributed to the Mongolian Death Worm.
  • Mongolian Wolf – This large predator is a species of gray wolf living in Mongolia. Like other types of wolves, the Mongolian wolf likes to stay hidden from people. But, if someone wandered into this wolf’s territory or approach its young, it would likely turn aggressive.
Female common adder

The common adder is one of four venomous snakes living in Mongolia.


Where to Find the Top Wild Animals in Mongolia

Animals in Mongolia that are Endangered or at risk of extinction are fortunate to have some safe areas of land to live on. These include national parks and wildlife preserves.

With close to 100,000 square miles, the famous Mongolian steppe habitat is a massive grassland that remains today. It is home to many amazing Mongolian animals, such as the Mongolian gazelle.

Mongolia has passed pieces of legislation to protect the steppe and other lands from commercial overhunting. In the 1990s, the government put into place the Mongolian Law on Hunting and its Law on Environmental Protection. These two items have helped preserve many of their amazing animals and lands.

Discover where to find the top wild animals in Mongolia:

  • Przewalski’s Horse – The habitat of these sturdy horses includes steppes and forests. Hustai National Park is one place in Mongolia where these horses wander.
  • Siberian Musk Deer – These unique animals live on the taiga and in mountainous areas. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is home to many of them. Their population has decreased in part due to big game hunters.
  • Brown Bear – The habitat of this large predator is mountainous desert. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park serves as home to many of these brown bears.
  • Snow Leopard – The habitat of another large predator namely the snow leopard includes mountainous areas and cliffs. Some of them reside in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park.
  • Altai Snow Cocks – These birds look like partridges and live in the mountains. Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park is home to many of them.
  • Bactrian Camels – This animal lives in the harsh climate of the Gobi Desert. They are found in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park as well.

Mongolia has passed pieces of legislation to protect the steppe and other lands from commercial overhunting.

©Johnstocker Prodution/

Rarest Animals in Mongolia

There are many animals that live in varied landscapes of Mongolia, and this one may be the rarest.

You may think it sounds crazy but there is a bear, yes a bear, that lives in a desert. The Gobi Desert, actually, and in Mongolia. It is a subspecies of the brown bear. Sadly, when we say rare, for this breed it is all too true. There may be less than fifty remaining individuals, but there has been a slight uptick in population over the past decade or so.

The Gobi Bear, or the Mazaalai, is an omnivore like most other bears and makes its meals out of just about anything they come across from locusts and grasshoppers to jasmine, sagebrush, and rhubarb. Only about ten percent of their diet comes from protein. When they are not foraging for food, they, as you might expect are looking for sources of water. In the summer months, this is especially true. They will spend a lot of time in shaded areas near rocks and tunnels.

The biggest threat to the Gobi Bear is probably the access to water. With climate change, the amount of freshwater is not getting more plentiful, especially within the desert regions of the world.

gobi desert , Mongolia

The Gobi Desert was once part of the famous Silk Road and is home to the very rare Gobi Bear.

©mr.wijannarongk kunchit/

Largest Animals in Mongolia

It’s only fitting that one of the largest countries in the world would have some very large animals. Many large animals call Mongolia their home. Some are hard to find and others are not!

One of these great beasts is the Argali sheep. These sheep are not only larger, but they are also the largest sheep breed in the world! Two types of them live in Mongolia: the Gobi Argali and the High Altai Argali. A stunning place that many of these sheep call home is the Mount Turgen sub-range.

Another large animal that you can find many of is the Mongolian White-tailed Gazelle. While they may not be the absolute biggest grazer in the world, they do come in large numbers. In the mid-2000s, they were seen traveling en masse in numbers of over 250,000 across the Mongolian plains! Mixed within their numbers were a few black-tailed Gazelles also.

Several of the world’s largest animals live in Mongolia.

©The original uploader was Head at German Wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons – License

Endangered Animals in Mongolia

Mongolia is home to many animals that are either Endangered or Critically Endangered. Habitat loss, loss of food sources, and big game hunting are all reasons for decreasing animal populations.

Habitat loss has been unfortunately due to many factors. Overuse of grassland has been a major concern as the population of Mongolia has been trying to make the most of available land. It has reduced the fortitude of the grasslands and surrounding ecosystems causing them to not be as fertile.

Perhaps the most serious aspect is that the freshwater sources throughout Mongolia have been drying up. Global warming, as well as human consumption, drastically has affected the landscape across Mongolia and is leading to desertification.

Some examples of Endangered animals in Mongolia:

Fastest Birds in the World: Saker Falcon

The Saker Falcon is one of the endangered animals of Mongolia.

©Gary C. Tognoni/

Mongolian Animals

Adélie Penguin

Eats up to 2kg of food per day!

Admiral Butterfly

Stunningly beautiful wings


First evolved 100 million years ago!


Renew their horns every year!


They are so named because they "march" in armies of worms from one crop to another in search of food

Asian Lady Beetle

Asian lady beetles infest indoor spaces, but they do not reproduce indoors.


Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!


Has a curved, upturned beak!

Bactrian Camel

The camel with two humps!

Banana Spider

People spin clothing and fishing nets out of these spiders’ silk.


There are over 1768 known species!

Barn Owl

Found everywhere around the world!

Barn Swallow

Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.


Detects prey using echolocation!


There are 8 different species!

Bed Bugs

Bed bugs feed for 4-12 minutes.


Rock paintings of bees date back 15,000 years


There are more than 350,000 different species


Not all birds are able to fly!

Biscuit Beetle

The biscuit beetle form a symbiotic relationship with yeast

Black Widow Spider

They typically prey on insects!

Brazilian Treehopper

“Mild-Mannered Minimonsters”

Brown Bear

A dominant predator in it's environment!

Brown Dog Tick

Can live its entire life indoors


The most common species of bee!


There are thought to be up 17,500 species!


Can survive without water for 10 months!

Camel Cricket

The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.

Carpenter Ant

Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!


May have been domesticated up to 10,000 years ago.


The larvae of a moth or butterfly!


There are nearly 3,000 different species!


There are about 3,000 documented species!


First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!

Chinese Geese

They are excellent “guard geese”

Cinereous Vulture

This vulture can fly at great heights. At least one was found a few thousand feet from the top of Mount Everest.


Dated to be around 300 million years old!

Codling Moth

Pupae are able to undergo diapause to survive poor fruit yield years and winter.

Common Buzzard

The most common raptor in the UK!

Common European Adder

European adders are the only snake that lives above the Arctic Circle.

Common Furniture Beetle

The common furniture beetle feeds exclusively on wood

Common House Spider

House spiders have the ability to eat most insects in a home.

Common Raven

A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.


They can fly 35 mph and dive 150 feet below water.


There are nearly 1.5 billion worldwide!


There are 93 different crab groups

Crab Spider

Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings


Many are critically endangered species!


Male crickets can produce sounds by rubbing their wings together


Have changed little in 200 million years!


A group of these birds is called a Murder.


There are around 40 different species!


First domesticated in South-East Asia!

Dog Tick

Dog ticks feed on dogs and other mammals


First domesticated 5,000 years ago!


Found in Europe, Africa and Asia!


It's larvae are carnivorous!


Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!

Dung Beetle

The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight


Has exceptional eyesight!


They are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female organs


There are nearly 2,000 different species!


Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!


Elasmotherium might have had a monstrous horn, giving it the name "The Siberian Unicorn."


Adult males can jump eight feet vertically


Embolotherium had a ram on its snout like a rhino but they never used it as a weapon.


A very bold and ferocious predator!

Eurasian Beaver

Eats 20% of its weight daily!

Eurasian Bullfinch

The shy eurasian bullfinch prefers to forage very close to cover.

Eurasian Eagle-owl

The Eurasian Eagle-owl is the second largest owl in the world with a wingspan up to six feet!

Eurasian Jay

The Eurasian jay has the ability to mimic other sounds

Eurasian Lynx

Eurasian lynxes can survive extreme weather up to elevations of 18,000 feet

Eurasian Wolf

Coloring depends on location.

European Goldfinch

They are frequent visitors to backyard feeders, especially those containing niger seeds.

European Robin

Male robins are so aggressive and territorial that they will attack their own reflections.


The fastest creatures on the planet!

False Widow Spider

False spiders actually prey on black widow spiders and other hazardous spiders

Fire-Bellied Toad

Found across mainland Europe and Asia!


The firefly produces some of the most efficient light in the world


Adult fleas can jump up to 7 inches in the air


There are more than 240,000 different species!

Flying Squirrel

Can glide up to 90 meters!


Only 12 species are considered "true foxes"


There are around 7,000 different species!

Fruit Fly

Fruit flies are among the most common research animals in the world


Named for the Arabic word for love poems


There are thought to be over 2,000 species!


Originally known as the Desert Rat!

German Cockroach

The most common type of urban roach


Some cryptozoologists think that Gigantopithecus survives to this day as "The Bigfoot."

Glass Lizard

Can grow up to 4ft long!


Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!


Males form large mating swarms at dusk


Most closely related to the Sheep!


The goldcrest never starts moving and needs to consume for most of the day to survive. Therefore, in the colder months, it's best that eat 90% a day.

Golden Eagle

Their calls sound like high-pitched screams, but they are quiet most of the time.

Golden Oriole

Migrates between Europe and Asia!


There are 29 different species!


There are 11,000 known species!

Green Bee-Eater

Mainly eats honeybees!

Gypsy Moth

One of the most invasive species in the world


Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!


Can reach speeds of over 50 mph!

Hawk Moth Caterpillar

Many hawk moth caterpillars eat toxins from plants, but don’t sequester them the way milkweed butterflies do. Most toxins are excreted.


Thought to be one of the oldest mammals on Earth!


Inhabits wetlands around the world!

Honey Bee

There are only 8 recognized species!


Stunning bird with a stinky way to deter predators!


Has evolved over 50 million years!


Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.


The fly has no teeth


Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!

Huntsman Spider

Some huntsman spiders have an interesting way of moving around. Some cartwheel while others do handsprings or backflips.


Found in swamps, marshes and wetlands!


There are an estimated 30 million species!


The jackdaw tends to mate for life with a single partner


Tiny rodent with a kangaroo-like jump!

Jumping Spider

Some can jump 50 times the length of their bodies


Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!


There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!


Has 10 pairs of eyes!


The offspring of a lion and tiger parents!


There are around 5,000 different species!


Each locust can eat its weight in plants each day.

Long-Eared Owl

Ear tufts make it look bigger!

Long-Tailed Tit

Often hangs upside down while feeding!


Lystrosaurus was one of the few terrestial species that survived the permian extinction


They are found across Europe, Asia and Africa!


A marmot spends 80% of its life below ground

Masked Palm Civet

Found throughout Asia, India and China!


There are 2,500 known species worldwide!


They have a symbiotic relationship with ants.


Some species have a poisonous bite!


Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!


Range in size from just 1 to 3 foot!


Has characteristics of two or more breeds!

Monitor Lizard

Some species are thought to carry a weak venom!


There are around 260 known species!


Feeds on aquatic insects and water-spiders!


Only the female mosquito actually sucks blood


There are 250,000 different species!


Found on every continent on Earth!


The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!


The muskrat can stay underwater up to 17 minutes at a time


Roamed Asia and Europe for around 100,000 years!


Nematodes range in size from 1/10 of an inch to 28 feet long


Able to regrow lost or damaged limbs!


Named more than 1,000 years ago!

No See Ums

There are more than 5,000 species.

Northern Pintail

Northern pintails migrate at night with speeds reaching 48 miles per hour!

Orb Weaver

Females are about four times the size of males

Ortolan Bunting

The tradition of hiding your face with a napkin or towel while eating this bird was begun by a priest who was a friend of the great French gastronome Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin.


There are 13 different species worldwide


Oviraptor means "egg thief" or "egg seizer," though they were quite protective of their own eggs.


The owl can rotate its head some 270 degrees


Can live for up to 100 years!

Peacock Butterfly

The eyespots on this butterfly’s wings deter predators from attacking.

Peppered Moth

Teachers in schools often use the evolution of the peppered moth as a good example of Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

Peregrine Falcon

Fastest animal on Earth


Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!


Thought to have been domesticated in 9,000 BC!


They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.


Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas

Pit Viper

Pit vipers's fangs fold up into their mouths when they don't need them.

Pond Skater

There are 500 different species!


There are 30 different species worldwide!


These parrot-headed dinosaurs had beaks and feather-like quills on their tails!


The Psittacosaurus dinosaurs had four limbs but were mostly bipedal.


Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!


There are more than 300 different species!


Omnivores that eat anything!

Rat Snakes

Rat snakes are constrictors from the Colubridae family of snakes.


It's horns are made from keratin!

River Turtle

Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!


There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!


The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.


Will mate with the entire flock!

Rough-Legged Hawk (Rough-Legged Buzzard)

Its scientific name, lagopus, is Ancient Greek for “hare” and “foot,” referring to its feathered feet and toes.


Their fur has been considered a luxury item since the Middle Ages

Sable Ferret

Ferrets were used during the Revolutionary War to keep down the rat population.


Large noses help filter out dust


There are more than 700 different species!

Sand Lizard

Males turn green in spring!


Sarkastadon was one of the largest land mammal carnivores of all time!


There are around 2,000 known species!

Sea Eagle

The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner


Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!


Around 35 million in the English countryside!

Short-Eared Owl

The short-eared owl is one of the most widespread owl species in the world, covering five continents.


The spinal column of the shrew Scutisorex somereni is so strong and reinforced that it can support the weight of an adult human.


There are 2,000 different species worldwide!

Siberian Ibex

There’s a population of Siberian ibex in New Mexico

Siberian Tiger

Also known as the Amur tiger!

Skink Lizard

Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.

Slow Worm

Found widely throughout British gardens!


They glide around on one foot, which is aided by the slime they produce

Smokybrown Cockroach

Has up to 45 eggs per egg case


There are nearly 1,000 different species!


There are around 4,000 known species worldwide

Snow Leopard

Unlike other big cats, snow leopards don’t roar.


There are 140 different species!

Spider Wasp

They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.


Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!

Stick Insect

There are more than 3,000 different species!


Average adults weigh about 200 grams!


They can’t sing like other birds.


Populations have been affected by pollution!

Taimen Fish

The Taimen is considered one of the oldest species on earth, with fossilized remains dating back more than 40 million years!

Tarantula Hawk

Tarantula hawks are excellent pollinators, especially for milkweed.


Tarbosaurus‘ name “bataar” is a mispelling of the Mongolian word “baatar,” which means “hero.”


Their mounds can be up to 9 meters tall!


Some theropods had feathers and may have been ancestors of modern birds.


The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.


They inject hosts with a chemical that stops them from feeling the pain of the bite


The largest feline in the world!

Tiger Beetle

The adult tiger beetle is one of the fastest land insects in the world


Can live until they are more than 150 years old!

Tree Frog

Found in warmer jungles and forests!


Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.


Vinegaroons can spray 19 times before the glands are depleted


Vipers are one of the most widespread groups of snakes and inhabit most


There are 30 different species worldwide!


There are around 75,000 recognised species!

Water Buffalo

Has been domesticated for thousands of years!


The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!

White Ferret / Albino Ferrets

There are two different types of white ferrets!

White-Tailed Eagle

It is one of the biggest birds of prey.

White Tiger

None have been seen in the wild for 50 years!

Wild Boar

Males have a top tusk to sharpen the bottom one!


Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!

Wolf Spider

Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.


This animal can roll up into a ball

Woodlouse Spider

Unlike most spiders, woodlouse spiders don’t build a web.


There are 200 different species!

Woolly Rhinoceros

The woolly rhinoceros roamed the earth between three and a half million and 14,000 years ago.


Doesn’t have eyes.


They feign death by making their bodies limp and closing their eyes.


Yaks can live at altitudes up to 20,000 feet--the highest of any land-dwelling mammal.


It interbreeds with the pine bunting


There are around 75 different species!


Zokors are expert diggers. They burrow tunnels hundreds of feet long!

Mongolian Animals List

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About the Author

Heather Ross is a secondary English teacher and mother of 2 humans, 2 tuxedo cats, and a golden doodle. In between taking the kids to soccer practice and grading papers, she enjoys reading and writing about all the animals!

Animals in Mongolia FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What animals live in Mongolia?

There are a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish living in Mongolia. Przewalski’s horse (once considered Extinct) is one of the most notable members of Mongolian wildlife.

Are there tigers in Mongolia?

No, but Mongolia is home to a couple of cats including the Pallas cat and the snow leopard. The Pallas cat looks a lot like a domestic cat in a household!

What is the most common animal in Mongolia?

While many animals are Endangered in Mongolia you can see some in large groups. Wild sheep have been seen in herds including thousands of members.

Are there big cats in Mongolia?

The snow leopard is one example. The Pallas cat is another member of the Felidae family in Mongolia.