Animals in Mongolia

Below you can find a complete list of Mongolian animals. We currently track 152 animals in Mongolia and are adding more every day!

The country of Mongolia is home to a variety of unique animals. Some of the more well-known animals include Bactrian camels, musk deer, and the Black-tailed gazelle. The snow leopard is one of the rarer species in Mongolia along with the snowcock. This country is unique in that it has an abundance of many types of animals including 139 mammal species, 449 bird species, 22 reptile species, 76 fish species, and 6 amphibian species.

The Official National Animal of Mongolia

The national animal of Mongolia is the Przewalski’s horse. It’s also known as the Mongolian horse or the Takh. The Przewalski’s horse is smaller than the typical domestic horse growing to just 4 feet tall. This horse is related to the zebra and has a black stripe on its back. Though these look a lot like domestic horses, they are born to be wild!

This unique horse is a symbol of strength and endurance. Its powerful body is designed to withstand the extremely cold, windy conditions in Mongolia. Takh means ‘spirit’ or ‘holy horse.’ Legends surround these unique horses. One legend is that Genghis Khan rode a Takh as he strived to conquer the world.

Przewalski horses were once categorized as Extinct. Many were the victims of big game hunters or lost their habitat due to farmland expansion. However, with the help of breeding programs, their population has escaped the category of Extinct and is slowly growing. Now, they’re categorized as Endangered. Scientists estimate there are 178 mature individuals alive today.

The Most Dangerous Animals in Mongolia Today

Like other countries, Mongolia is home to both non-aggressive as well as dangerous animals. Some of the most dangerous animals in Mongolia include:

  • Common Adder-The common adder is one of four venomous snakes living in Mongolia. Though they are not aggressive, they do bite if threatened. This snake blends well with its environment, so many bites occur when they are stepped on. Fortunately, there are only 14 recorded human deaths from common adders since 1876! Though a common adder’s bite is not likely to be fatal, it is very painful and can require a trip to the hospital for treatment.
  • Halys Pit Viper-This is another venomous snake found in Mongolia. The number of humans bitten by the Halys Pit Viper is unknown. However, a bite from this snake causes swelling, bruising, and blistering where the bite occurred. In short, their bite is painful, but not likely to be fatal.
  • Mongolian Death Worm-This animal is said to live beneath the sands of the Gobi Desert. This is one of those creatures with a lot of stories surrounding it that vary in accuracy. In fact, a Russian author named Yefremov wrote a science fiction novel based on this animal. It is said to measure two feet long and can spray venom at its prey. Other stories claim a Mongolian Death Worm’s skin is poisonous and can cause death if it’s touched. Through most of the last century, many individuals claim to have seen this animal. But some scientists say what people are seeing is the Tartar sand boa constrictor. This snake doesn’t have any of the characteristics attributed to the Mongolian Death Worm.
  • Mongolian Wolf-This large predator is a species of gray wolf living in Mongolia. Like other types of wolves, the Mongolian wolf likes to stay hidden from people. But, if someone wandered into this wolf’s territory or approach its young, it would likely turn aggressive.

Where to Find the Top Wild Animals in Mongolia

Animals in Mongolia that are Endangered or at risk of extinction are fortunate to have some safe areas of land to live on. These include national parks and wildlife preserves. Discover where to find the top wild animals in Mongolia:

  • Przewalski’s Horse – The habitat of these sturdy horses includes steppes and forests. Hustai National Park is one place in Mongolia where these horses wander.
  • Siberian Musk Deer – These unique animals live on the taiga and in mountainous areas. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park is home to many of them. Their population has decreased in part due to big game hunters.
  • Brown Bear – The habitat of this large predator is mountainous desert. Gorkhi-Terelj National Park serves as home to many of these brown bears.
  • Snow Leopard – The habitat of another large predator namely the snow leopard includes mountainous areas and cliffs. Some of them reside in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park.
  • Altai Snow Cocks – These birds look like partridges and live in the mountains. Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park is home to many of them.
  • Bactrian Camels – This animal lives in the harsh climate of the Gobi Desert. They are found in Gobi Gurvan Saikhan National Park as well.

Endangered Animals in Mongolia

Mongolia is home to many animals that are either Endangered or Critically Endangered. Habitat loss, loss of food source and big game hunting are all reasons for decreasing animal populations. Some examples of Endangered animals in Mongolia:

Mongolian Animals

Adelie Penguin

Eats up to 2kg of food per day!

Ant

First evolved 100 million years ago!

Antelope

Renew their horns every year!

Aurochs

Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!

Avocet

Has a curved, upturned beak!

Bactrian Camel

The camel with two humps!

Barb

There are over 2,000 known species!

Barn Owl

Found everywhere around the world!

Barn Swallow

Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.

Bat

Detects prey using echolocation!

Bear

There are 8 different species!

Beetle

There are more than 350,000 different species

Bird

Not all birds are able to fly!

Black Widow Spider

They typically prey on insects!

Brown Bear

A dominant predator in it's environment!

Bumblebee

The most common species of bee!

Butterfly

There are thought to be up 20,000 species!

Camel

Can survive without water for 10 months!

Camel Cricket

The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.

Carpenter Ant

Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!

Cat

First domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians!

Caterpillar

The larvae of a moth or butterfly!

Catfish

There are nearly 3,000 different species!

Centipede

There are about 3,000 documented species!

Chicken

First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!

Chinese Geese

They are excellent “guard geese”

Cockroach

Dated to be around 300 million years old!

Common Buzzard

The most common raptor in the UK!

Common Raven

A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.

Cow

There are nearly 1.5 million worldwide!

Crab

There are 93 different crab groups

Crab Spider

Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings

Crane

Many are critically endangered species!

Crocodile

Have changed little in 200 million years!

Deer

There are around 40 different species!

Dog

First domesticated in South-East Asia!

Donkey

First domesticated 5,000 years ago!

Dormouse

Found in Europe, Africa and Asia!

Dragonfly

It's larvae are carnivorous!

Duck

Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!

Dung Beetle

The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight

Eagle

Has exceptional eyesight!

Earwig

There are nearly 2,000 different species!

Eel

Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!

Elk

Adult males can jump eight feet vertically

Ermine

A very bold and ferocious predator!

Falcon

The fastest creatures on the planet!

Fire-Bellied Toad

Found across mainland Europe and Asia!

Fly

There are more than 240,000 different species!

Flying Squirrel

Can glide up to 90 meters!

Fox

There are 12 different species in the world!

Frog

There are around 7,000 different species!

Gecko

There are thought to be over 2,000 species!

Gerbil

Originally known as the Desert Rat!

Glass Lizard

Can grow up to 4ft long!

Glow Worm

Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!

Goat

Most closely related to the Sheep!

Golden Oriole

Migrates between Europe and Asia!

Goose

There are 29 different species!

Grasshopper

There are 11,000 known species!

Green Bee-Eater

Mainly eats honeybees!

Hamster

Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!

Hare

Can reach speeds of over 40 mph!

Hedgehog

Thought to be one of the oldest mammals on Earth!

Heron

Inhabits wetlands around the world!

Honey Bee

There are only 8 recognized species!

Hoopoe

Stunning bird with a stinky way to deter predators!

Horse

Has evolved over 50 million years!

Horsefly

Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.

Human

Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!

Huntsman Spider

Some huntsman spiders have an interesting way of moving around. Some cartwheel while others do handsprings or backflips.

Ibis

Found in swamps, marshes and wetlands!

Insects

There are an estimated 30 million species!

Jerboa

Tiny rodent with a kangaroo-like jump!

Kingfisher

Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!

Ladybug

There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!

Liger

The offspring of a lion and tiger parents!

Lizard

There are around 5,000 different species!

Locust

Each locust can eat its weight in plants each day.

Long-Eared Owl

Ear tufts make it look bigger!

Magpie

They are found across Europe, Asia and Africa!

Marmot

A marmot spends 80% of its life below ground

Masked Palm Civet

Found throughout Asia, India and China!

Mayfly

There are 2,500 known species worldwide!

Millipede

Some species have a poisonous bite!

Mole

Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!

Mongoose

Range in size from just 1 to 3 foot!

Mongrel

Has characteristics of two or more breeds!

Monitor Lizard

Some species are thought to carry a weak venom!

Monkey

There are around 260 known species!

Moorhen

Feeds on aquatic insects and water-spiders!

Moth

There are 250,000 different species!

Mouse

Found on every continent on Earth!

Mule

The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!

Muskrat

The muskrat can stay underwater up to 17 minutes at a time

Neanderthal

Roamed Asia and Europe for around 100,000 years!

Newt

Able to regrow lost or damaged limbs!

Nightingale

Named more than 1,000 years ago!

No See Ums

There are more than 5,000 species.

Otter

There are 13 different species worldwide

Parrot

Can live for up to 100 years!

Peregrine Falcon

Fastest animal on Earth

Pheasant

Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!

Pig

Thought to have been domesticated in 9,000 BC!

Pigeon

They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.

Pika

Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas

Pond Skater

There are 500 different species!

Porcupine

There are 30 different species worldwide!

Quail

Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!

Rabbit

There are more than 50 different species!

Rat

Omnivores that eat anything!

Rhinoceros

It's horns are made from keratin!

River Turtle

Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!

Robin

There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!

Rodents

The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.

Sable

Their fur has been considered a luxury item since the Middle Ages

Saiga

Large noses help filter out dust

Salamander

There are more than 700 different species!

Sand Lizard

Males turn green in spring!

Scorpion

There are around 2,000 known species!

Seahorse

Males give birth to up to 1,000 offspring!

Sheep

Around 35 million in the English countryside!

Shrimp

There are 2,000 different species worldwide!

Siberian Tiger

Also known as the Amur tiger!

Skink Lizard

Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.

Slow Worm

Found widely throughout British gardens!

Snail

There are nearly 1,000 different species!

Snake

There are around 3,000 known species worldwide

Snow Leopard

Unlike other big cats, snow leopards don’t roar.

Sparrow

There are 140 different species!

Spider Wasp

They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.

Squirrel

Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!

Stick Insect

There are more than 3,000 different species!

Stoat

Average adults weigh about 200 grams!

Swan

Populations have been affected by pollution!

Termite

Their mounds can be up to 9 meters tall!

Thrush

The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.

Tiger

The largest feline in the world!

Tortoise

Can live until they are more than 150 years old!

Tree Frog

Found in warmer jungles and forests!

Vulture

There are 30 different species worldwide!

Wasp

There are around 75,000 recognised species!

Water Buffalo

Has been domesticated for thousands of years!

Weasel

The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!

White Tiger

None have been seen in the wild for 50 years!

Wild Boar

Males have a top tusk to sharpen the bottom one!

Wolf

Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!

Wolf Spider

Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.

Woodlouse

Actually a crustacean, not an insect!

Woodpecker

There are 200 different species!

Yak

There are only a few left in the wild!

Zebu

There are around 75 different species!

Mongolian Animals List

Animals in Mongolia FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What animals live in Mongolia?

There are a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish living in Mongolia. Przewalski’s horse (once considered Extinct) is one of the most notable members of Mongolian wildlife.

Are there tigers in Mongolia?

No, but Mongolia is home to a couple of cats including the Pallas cat and the snow leopard. The Pallas cat looks a lot like a domestic cat in a household!

What is the most common animal in Mongolia?

While many animals are Endangered in Mongolia you can see some in large groups. Wild sheep have been seen in herds including thousands of members.

Are there big cats in Mongolia?

The snow leopard is one example. The Pallas cat is another member of the Felidae family in Mongolia.