Updated: March 1, 2023
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By landmass, Canada is the world’s second-largest country and home to approximately 1,950 different types of animals. Unlike the United States and Mexico — North America’s two other nations — Canada is not a megadiverse country. Nevertheless, its wide-open spaces and relatively low human population make it a wildlife wonderland. 

Below, you’ll find a complete list of Canadian animals — with fantastic pictures! We currently track 494 animals in Canada and add more daily!

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Canadian Wildlife Geography

Canada is 9.9 square kilometers, containing 15 terrestrial eco-zones and five marine ones. Scientists believe 70,000 to 80,000 plant and animal species occupy the landmass, and an equal number have yet to be discovered.

This country occupies a large space of the continent of North America, bordering the United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. It stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It also has shorelines with the Arctic Ocean in the north.

Canada’s southwest region is a mix of rainforest, desert, and continental climate zones, which the Rockies separate from the middle plains and eastern temperate zones. Further north, tundra conditions persist, and parts of the country lie above the Arctic Circle.

Canada has the world’s largest proportion of freshwater lakes, which, added to its land mass, makes it the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. Canada also is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes.


One of Canada’s most well-known animals is the moose.


Canadian Animals

Englishman Samuel Hearne, an 18th-century explorer, fur trader, and naturalist, was the first person to record Canadian animals during his 1795 expedition. John Richardson followed with the Fauna Boreali-Americana in 1829. Today, people interested in Canadian wildlife and animals typically subscribe to The Canadian Field-Naturalist, Canada Journal of Zoology. French speakers can pick up Le Naturaliste Canadien

The most recent Canadian animal count stands at 200 mammals, about 692 birds, 43 reptiles, and 43 amphibians. Most notably, the following types of animals are found in Canada and in surrounding waters:

Due to human activities, invasive species, and environmental issues, there are some Canadian species at risk of being lost. However, about 65 percent of Canada’s resident species are considered secure. About 12% of the nation’s landmass and freshwater are considered conservation areas, including 11% percent designated as protected areas. Also, about 14% of Canada’s territorial waters are conserved, including almost 9% designated as protected areas.

Mammals in Canada

Canada is known for its giant residents: moose, wood bison, polar bears, and grizzlies. But in terms of population, rodents are the most plentiful mammals in Canada. Scientists have currently recorded about 200 mammals in the country, and the list ranges from bats to blue whales to bobcats.

Common Mammals

snowy owl

One of Canada’s native birds is the snowy owl.

©Jim Cumming/

Native Birds

When you search “number of bird species in Canada,” you’ll get many different answers. Some counts only include animals native to Canada, some are lists of birds that never leave Canadian airways, and still others are giant listings of every bird that’s ever crossed the border.

We think a good count for the number of birds in Canada is about 687 and 692. That includes between 462 and 467 birds endemic to the country, plus 225 accidental species that immigrated, either by choice or importing, and stayed — or visit for half the year.

Common Birds

What Do Trout Eat - Rainbow Trout Bursting from Surface

Rainbow trout are commonly found throughout Canadian fresh water lakes and rivers.


Native Fish

Over one thousand species of fish torpedo through Canada’s waters. Most famously, the country is a salmon haven, and anglers flock for the annual runs on both the east and west coasts. Canada is also home to several spectacular fish including:

Common Fresh-Water Fish

Common Salt-Water Fish

Portrait of a Rattlesnake

A wild Prairie Rattlesnake poses in the strike position. These are native to S. Saskatchewan and Alberta.

© Kaminski

Native Reptiles

Surprisingly, the reptile world is widely represented in the Great White North. Crocodiles are the only reptile group not represented in Canada. Vast and beautiful, Canada is home to some not-so-pleasant reptiles, such as venomous snakes.

Common Venomous Snakes in Canada

  • Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (British Columbia)
  • Massasauga (Georgian Bay Area of Ontario)
  • Prairie Rattlesnake (S. Saskatchewan; Alberta)
  • Desert Nighsnake (Endemic to southern Okanagan valley of British Columbia)

If bitten by a reptile, especially a snake, it is always necessary to seek professional medical attention, even if thought to be harmless.

You can also read about the largest snake found in Canada.

National Animals of Canada

What is Canada’s national animal? Many people assume it’s the moose or polar bear.

Those are good guesses, but it’s actually the beaver and Canadian horse

One of Canada’s national animals is actually the North American beaver.

©No machine-readable author provided. Cszmurlo assumed (based on copyright claims), CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons – Original / License

North American Beaver

On March 24, 1975, the North American beaver became Canada’s National Animal when lawmakers passed the National Symbol of Canada Act, which recognized the animal as “a symbol of the sovereignty of Canada.” 

When people first learn this fun fact, the reaction is typically that of unsureness. However, any proud Canadian will set skeptics straight, explaining that beavers are hard-working and highly intelligent, able to build structures visible from space! “What better animal is there to celebrate and uplift?” And we agree: beavers are quite incredible.

Four Fun Facts About Beavers

  1. Beaver lodges are sturdy, comfy, and safe. To evade predators, they build underwater entrances. Inside, there are two rooms: one is a “mudroom,” where beavers dry off and clean themselves. The other is a dry, warm, toasty den where they hang out and socialize.
  2. Built-in swimming goggles? Beavers have them. While swimming, their transparent eyelids “switch on.” They act like goggles and allow beavers to keep their eyes open underwater.  
  3. Why are beavers always gnawing on things? It’s their teeth — which never stop growing! To keep their fangs under control, beavers continuously file them down by chewing on bark, buds, stems, and twigs.
  4. Occasionally, beavers will kindly open up their lodges to muskrat families in need.
  5. In 1621, Sir William Alexander was the first person to include a beaver in a recognized coat of arms.
Two young black Canadian horses in field in fall season in Eastern township, Quebec, Canada.

The Canadian


was chosen as the second national animal.


Canadian Horse

In 2002, after a years-long campaign, parliamentarians added a second national animal to its roster: the Canadian horse — aka cheval Canadien. 

The species’ descendants track back to the stables of Louis XIV, France’s Sun King, and they’re graceful, muscled, powerful, and calm. 

Calvary men who fought in the American Civil War rode Canadian horses almost exclusively, and it nearly extinguished the breed. Once the war ended, Canada passed a ban on exports to regrow the population.

Alongside the United States, Australia, and the Bahamas, Canada is one of four nations with two national animals.

polar bears in arctic water

Polar bears are an endangered species in Canada.


Endangered Animals In Canada

At the time of this writing, according to the Canadian government, 890 of the country’s animals are endangered, vulnerable, or seriously threatened.

Canada’s Species at Risk Act (SARA) is the federal government legislation to prevent wildlife species from becoming extinct, with the goal to protect endangered or threatened organisms and their habitats. Additionally, provinces, territories, and large municipalities also have their own species and habitat conservation regulations.

Canada actually established the world’s first national park management agency, the Dominion Parks Branch, now called Parks Canada, in 1911. The country also collaborated with the United States in 1916 to sign the Migratory Birds Convention.

Some Canadian animals that are at risk of extinction include:

Black widow spiders are one of the most dangerous animals in Canada.

©Jay Ondreicka/

The 5 Most Dangerous Animals In Canada Today

The five most dangerous animals in Canada are the moose, black widow spider, prairie rattlesnake, cougar, and polar bear. With such a large landmass, humans haven’t touched a large portion of the land, making it the ideal spot for wildlife to thrive.

Though Canadians seem easygoing, some of its animals do not have that trait.


Moose aren’t meat-eaters, so they don’t attack people for food. But the 1,500-pound behemoths do cause catastrophic harm when they collide with cars and ram vehicles. Moose mainly stick to lake streams deep in the woodlands, but they occasionally collide with humans — so watch out!  

Black Widow Spider

Black widow spiders live along Canada’s southern border. They like to hang in dark, quiet places, like sheds, under rocks, and beneath woodpiles. 

Despite their reputations, black widows do their best to avoid people and only bite after exhausting all other options. Thankfully, the black widow spiders found in Canada aren’t venomous enough to kill humans, but they can cause lots of pain — and are deadly to smaller animals.

Prairie Rattlesnake

Prairie rattlesnakes slither around southwestern Alberta, and if you come across one, be very careful! It is rare for people to die from snake bites, however, it does happen. For instance, in 2018, a man lost his life after a prairie rattlesnake struck him during a golf outing. If bitten, stay calm and call 911 immediately.


Cougars, the second heaviest big cat after the jaguar, rarely attack humans, but they will in trying times or in defence of young cubs. In Canada, they live around the Rocky Mountain region.

Polar Bear

Polar bears are beautiful and deadly! While they won’t charge people, unless provoked, it is important to watch out! Polar bears weigh between 330 and 1,200 pounds and have been known to decapitate humans with one swipe of their giant paws.

Vancouver Island Marmot

This marmot lives exclusively on Vancouver Island.

©Province of British Columbia/Flickr – Original / License

The 4 Rarest Animals in Canada

A recent report shows that more than 300 species are found in Canada and nowhere else in the world. With such a large landmass and multiple waterways, it’s actually more surprising there aren’t MORE animals that only reside in Canada.

As far as hotspots, British Columbia, Quebec, Alberta, and Yukon had the highest numbers of endemic plants and animals. Explorations of sand dunes, rivers and lakes, and remote islands have helped with many recent discoveries.

Here are the top 4 rarest animals in Canada:

  • Eastern wolf — With grizzled brown or cinnamon-colored fur, this lightly built wolf is actually the product of a recent hybridization between the grey wolf and the coyote. Their population numbers are slim, but they tend to stay out of the way of human contact. Hopefully more can be done for this Canadian mammal.
  • Vancouver Island marmot — These ground squirrels are about the size of a house cat and weigh around 11 lbs. Living exclusively on Vancouver Island, they create homes at higher elevations in natural meadows that occur in the forest. For a brief period in the 1990s, they were momentarily extinct in the wild. Sadly there are only 300 in the wild but captive breeding programs are underway.
  • Pacific Steller’s jay — This is a large songbird with a long beak, broad, rounded wings, and a long tail. Its head is dark gray, while the body is blue. It is named after Georg Steller, a Russian naturalist who first described it in 1741. In particular, the carlottae subspecies can only be found on Haida Gwaii. These birds are bold, inquisitive, and noisy.
  • Salt marsh copper — This is not a snake but, in fact, an insect! The males in this species have a dull purple on their wings, with large black spots on the top and underside. Females have brown wings featuring yellow bands. True to their name, these winged insects are found only in salt marshes along the Gulf of St. Lawrence coasts of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island.
Are Blue Whales Endangered - A Blue Whale Near the Surface

The biggest animal in the whole world calls Canada home.

©Andrew Sutton/

The Largest Animals in Canada

You probably figured that with all the animals in Canada, there are some pretty big ones there. You aren’t wrong! Here are the top 3 largest animals in Canada.

Blue Whale

The biggest animal in the whole world calls Canada home for at least half the year. They are often found in Canada’s east coast waters before making their migratory pattern down the Atlantic. This king of the ocean is actually endangered, with less than 20,000 thought to be alive. Throughout its 90-year lifespan, it can grow up to 352,000 lbs and 100 feet in length.

Wood Bison

The wood bison can be found in Alberta, Manitoba, and the Northwest Territories. It is the country’s largest land animal, with the honor of having a national park named after it. This species stands about 6 feet tall and is about 10 feet long. Males weigh about 2,000 pounds when mature while females weigh about 1,200 pounds.

Polar Bear

We would be remiss if we didn’t mention the ginormous polar bear. Though endangered due to many factors, the polar bear is a big foe for its food and enemies. It is in competition with Kodiak brown bears for the largest species of bear in the world. Males often weigh in at around 1300 pounds, with females a couple hundred lower. They can be anywhere from 6 1/2 feet to 8 feet tall, standing above most humans.

Toronto Zoo

The Toronto zoo has both indoor and outdoor attractions and is able to house around 5,000 animals.

©Lester Balajadia/

Zoos in Canada

Canada is home to 28 accredited zoos, with the Toronto Zoo being the largest. These well-maintained locations will give you a glimpse into the wildlife that naturally roams the Canadian wilds, and learn more about them.

The top 5 zoos to visit in Canada are as follows:

  1. Toronto Zoo – Especially known for its Great Barrier Reef and Tundra Trek exhibits, this zoo is the largest in Canada. About 5,000 animals of 450+ species roam the 710 acres. Opportunities for riding animal-themed rides are available, along with walking trails, interacting with wildlife, and attending keeper talks and feedings.
  2. Calgary Zoo – Not only home to wolves, bears, and African wildlife, this zoo is known for its amazing panda exhibit and Conservatory Gardens and Butterflies section, holding a plethora of flying beauties and green fauna.
  3. Edmonton Zoo – Around 100 species are displayed in this zoo, the most popular being red pandas and a 45-year-old Asian elephant named Lucy. Focused on wildlife conservation, the Edmonton Zoo works toward educating visitors with interactive programs and intimate experiences.
  4. Granby Zoo – Located outside of Montreal lies the Granby Zoo, established in 1953 and home to 200+ species of animal. Of the many attractions, the petting zoo, monorail, waterpark, and jungle training camp for kids draw visitors in. Also available is an interactive dinosaur exhibit and feeding rays and birds.
  5. Magnetic Hill Zoo – Focused on protecting wildlife and habitats, the Magnetic Hill Zoo promotes education and interaction with visitors. Some exciting species found here include Madagascar lemurs, Amur tigers, and Gibbon apes. Zookeeper programs for children are especially attractive to visitors.

The Canadian Flag

The flag of Canada, with a 1:2:1 ratio, features a red field with a white square in the middle, in which a stylized red, 11-pointed maple leaf is emblazoned in the center. The Canadian flag is the country’s primary and most iconic symbol.

It wasn’t until 1964 that Canada decided it needed its own flag. Then Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the lack of an official Canadian flag, sparking a serious debate about replacing the Union Flag. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley, was selected. It made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965, which is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.

Colorful canoes and reflecting waters create a picturesque scene at Moraine Lake in Banff National Park.

©John Couture/

National Parks in Canada

This North American country has acres upon acres of untouched wilderness, providing homes for an abundance of wildlife and plant species. To see an unfiltered view of oceans, mountains, forests, plains, and lakes, visit the ten most beautiful national parks in Canada.

The first national park established in Canada was Banff National Park, established in 1885, modeled after the American experience at Yellowstone National Park. It has many glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forests, and alpine landscapes. This park, along with a few others, is considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The national parks system is to preserve ecological integrity. As of July 2021, there are 38 national parks, 10 national park reserves, and one national urban park. There is at least one park located in every one of Canada’s 13 provinces and territories.

Canadian Animals FAQ?

Where Can I Find the Most Updated List of Endangered Canadian Animals?

Canada’s endangered species list is constantly changing. To keep up with the latest counts and assessments, head over to Canada’s List of Wildlife Species at Risk (SARA), an ongoing project maintained by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

What Does the Canadian Wildlife Act Do?

The Canadian Wildlife Act defines National Wildlife Areas (NWAs), National Parks, and Migratory Bird Sanctuaries. It also outlines the country’s endangered species programs.

More on Canada

Canadian Animals

Acadian Flycatcher

Their nests are sloppily held together and have an abandoned appearance

Admiral Butterfly

Stunningly beautiful wings

American Bully

Though the American bully was bred to look intimidating, it makes an extremely friendly family pet!

American Coonhound

Easygoing and people-friendly!

American Dog Tick

Main vector of Rocky Mountain spotted fever

American Eel

Don't eat raw eel! Their blood is poisonous to humans when consumed raw.

American Robin

The color “Robin egg blue” is named after the hue of their eggs.

American Toad

They secrete a milky poisonous liquid that can make many animals sick.

Anna’s Hummingbird

Anna's Hummingbird wings beat 40-50 times per second during normal flight


First evolved 100 million years ago!


The family Entelodontidae is commonly referred to as "hell pigs."

Arctic Char

Arctic char is the northern-most fish; no other fish lives anywhere further north!

Arctic Fox

Extremely thick winter fur!

Arctic Hare

Eats berries found in the snow!

Arctic Wolf

Incredibly versatile and adaptive!


They are so named because they "march" in armies of worms from one crop to another in search of food

Asian Lady Beetle

Asian lady beetles infest indoor spaces, but they do not reproduce indoors.

Asian Longhorn Beetle

Their entire life cycle from larvae to beetle usually takes around 2 years in Asia. However, it may take longer in areas where they are an invasive species, like the UK and USA

Atlantic Cod

One of the most popular food fishes in the world

Atlantic Sturgeon

Atlantic Sturgeon often leap out of the water.


Extinct ancestor of all domesticated cattle!

Australorp Chicken

Australorp chickens are among the best egg producers in the world, Hens in Australia set consecutive world records with one laying 364 eggs in a single year!

Bagworm Moth Caterpillar

They continually enlarge their protective cases

Barn Owl

Found everywhere around the world!

Barn Spider

Common barn dwelling spider

Barn Swallow

Older offspring help care for new hatchlings.

Barred Owl

Like other owls, the barred owl swallows its prey whole.


Detects prey using echolocation!


The Bea-Tzu has a fast-growing coat


An excellent companion for cats!


There are 8 different species!


Builds a dam from sticks and leaves!

Bed Bugs

Bed bugs feed for 4-12 minutes.


Rock paintings of bees date back 15,000 years


There are more than 350,000 different species

Beewolf wasp

They hunt bees

Bighorn Sheep

Bighorn rams can run at speeds up to 40 miles per hour when fighting for dominance.


Not all birds are able to fly!

Biscuit Beetle

The biscuit beetle form a symbiotic relationship with yeast


Largest mammal in North America!

Black Crappie

Black crappie fish can hybridize with white crappie, resulting in a closely related species.

Black Sea Bass

Black sea bass males become fluorescent blue and green during the breeding season.

Black Widow Spider

They typically prey on insects!

Blackburnian Warbler

They are the only songbird in North America with an orange throat!

Blackpoll Warbler

They migrate for the longest distance of any warbler.

Blue Death Feigning Beetle

When threatened, blue death feigning beetles will pretend like they’re dead.

Blue Dragon Sea Slug

They inflict a painful, venomous sting

Blue Jay

Blue jays rub ants on their feather to remove harmful acids

Blue Racer

Some blue racers have smooth scales that are solid electric blue while others are grayish or brownish.


The world record for longest bluegill is 15 inches.


About double the size of a domestic cat!


In spring, the male bobolink is the only North American bird who is dark below and light colored above. This makes identification easy.

Brazilian Treehopper

“Mild-Mannered Minimonsters”

Brook Trout

The Brook Trout is actually part of the salmon family, making it not technically a trout.

Brown-banded Cockroach

Females glue egg cases to furniture

Brown Bear

A dominant predator in it's environment!

Brown Dog Tick

Can live its entire life indoors

Brown Headed Cowbird

Males are generally monogamous during mating season and will protect the female from other males. However, females tend to venture from their partners and mate with other males.

Buffalo Fish

The oldest Buffalo fish recorded was 112 years old!

Bull Trout

The bull trout is not actually a trout, but a member of the char family.


Has loud cow-like calls!


Considered “The farmer’s friend” because it eats mice and other vermin.


The most common species of bee!


There are thought to be up 17,500 species!

Camel Cricket

The camel crickets that are found in the USA are light brown in color. They also have dark streaks all over their body.

Canada Lynx

They have natural snowshoes

Canada Warbler

These birds travel more than 3,000 miles during migration!

Canadian Horse

Canadian horses are believed to generate more power per pound of body weight than any other horse breed in the world.


They're the largest diving duck in North America!


There are 14 genera and 53 species in the cardinal family


Males and females grow antlers

Carpenter Ant

Carpenter ants can lift up to seven times their own weight with their teeth!


May have been domesticated up to 10,000 years ago.


The larvae of a moth or butterfly!


There are nearly 3,000 different species!

Cave Lion

Unlike modern lions, cave lions didn't have a significant mane.

Cecropia Moth

Cecropia moths don’t have digestive tracts, so they can’t eat.

Cedar Waxwing

Their feathers have red, waxy tips that can be hard to identify unless you’re up close.


There are about 3,000 documented species!

Chestnut-Sided Warbler

They inhabit regrowing forests


Chickadees are named for the sound they make: Chick-a-dee-dee-dee-dee-dee!


First domesticated more than 10,000 years ago!


There are 25 different species!

Cinnamon Bear

A newborn cinnamon bear weighs 1/2 pound -- about the same as a large apple.

Cochin Chicken

Cochin chickens gifted to Queen Victoria started a craze that lasted more than a decade!


Dated to be around 300 million years old!

Codling Moth

Pupae are able to undergo diapause to survive poor fruit yield years and winter.

Common Furniture Beetle

The common furniture beetle feeds exclusively on wood

Common Goldeneye

They're known as whistlers because of the sound of the wind in their feathers.

Common Grackle

Common grackles are a pest species that damage crops and spread disease.

Common House Spider

House spiders have the ability to eat most insects in a home.

Common Loon

Also known as the Great Northern Diver

Common Raven

A group of ravens is called an unkindness or a conspiracy.

Common Yellowthroat

The Common Yellowthroat stays close to the ground and uses stealth to survive!

Cooper’s Hawk

Eyes change color as they age


They can fly 35 mph and dive 150 feet below water.


The Second Largest feline in North America


There are nearly 1.5 billion worldwide!


Also known as the Prairie Wolf!


There are 93 different crab groups

Crab Spider

Crab Spiders can mimic ants or bird droppings


Many are critically endangered species!


Male crickets can produce sounds by rubbing their wings together

Cross Fox

The cross fox’s tail is bushier than the tail of the average red fox


A group of these birds is called a Murder.

Cucumber Beetle

Adults cucumber beetles cause the most damage to cucurbit plants.

Dark-Eyed Junco

They are called snowbirds because many subspecies reappear in the winter.

De Kay’s Brown Snake

They have specialized jaws for removing snails from shells.


There are around 40 different species!

Deer Mouse

Roughly 60 different species of deer mice range from Canada to Central America!

Deer Tick

Commonly found on white-tailed deer

Diamondback Moth

Adult males make high amplitude boing noise to attract females


They have a unique call that they are named for.


Dimetrodon was among the largest predators of the Early Permian Period.

Diving Duck

Diving ducks can forage for food at depths of over 40 feet and stay underwater for up to one minute.


First domesticated in South-East Asia!

Dog Tick

Dog ticks feed on dogs and other mammals


Doxles have long floppy ears


It's larvae are carnivorous!


Rows of tiny plates line their teeth!

Dung Beetle

The dung beetle can push objects many times its own weight


Has exceptional eyesight!


They are hermaphrodites, which means they have male and female organs


There are nearly 2,000 different species!

Eastern Bluebird

Bluebirds drop straight down on their prey from their perch, much like leopards.

Eastern Chipmunk

The name chipmunk is derived from an Ojibwe word that means “one who descends the trees headfirst.”

Eastern Gray Squirrel

Eastern gray squirrels use both memory and scent to find their buried caches of food during the winter.

Eastern Hognose Snake

Eastern hognose snakes are venomous, but only to frogs and toads.

Eastern Kingbird

The eastern kingbird is a fierce fighter once known as the butcher king!

Eastern Meadowlark

They can live up to 9 years.

Eastern Phoebe

This passerine bird can sing its song without ever hearing another bird vocalize first.

Eastern Racer

Fast and Furious!

Eastern Turkey (Wild Turkey)

You can hear their gobbles up to a mile away!


Eels can be a mere few inches long to 13 feet!


Eiders are sexually dimorphic, with males being larger and more colorful.


Adult males can jump eight feet vertically

Emperor Goose

Their calls sound like a nasally “kla-ha, kla-ha, kla-ha.”


A very bold and ferocious predator!

Eskimo Dog

Takes pure delight in cold weather!

European Corn Borer

Female can lay up to 600 eggs in her 14-day lifespan

Evening Grosbeak

They are friendly and non-aggressive to those in their species.


The fastest creatures on the planet!

Fallow deer

The fallow deer has more variation in its coat colors than most other deer.

False Widow Spider

False spiders actually prey on black widow spiders and other hazardous spiders

Ferruginous Hawk

The ferruginous hawk comes in both light and dark morphs


The firefly produces some of the most efficient light in the world


The fisher is an agile climber and makes its home in tree hollows.


Adult fleas can jump up to 7 inches in the air


There are more than 240,000 different species!


Only 12 species are considered "true foxes"

Fox Snakes

In some areas, fox snakes and gopher snakes have crossbred in the wild.

Fox Squirrel

Although it is a tree squirrel, it spends most of its time on the ground.


There are around 7,000 different species!

Fruit Fly

Fruit flies are among the most common research animals in the world

Fulvous Whistling Duck

They build a ramp from their nest, which leads to a nearby water source


They make many sounds when trying to attract a mate.

Garter Snake

Female garter snakes give birth to live young rather than laying eggs!

German Cockroach

The most common type of urban roach

Giant House Spider

They are the fastest invertebrates in the U.K.

Giant Leopard Moth

When giant leopard moths mate, their mating sessions last over 24 hours.

Giant Salamander

Cryptobranchus giant salamanders breathe mostly through their skin.

Glass Lizard

Can grow up to 4ft long!


Found inhabiting dense woodland and caves!


Males form large mating swarms at dusk

Golden-Crowned Kinglet

They huddle together for warmth

Golden Eagle

Their calls sound like high-pitched screams, but they are quiet most of the time.

Golden Tortoise Beetle

Golden tortoise beetles have a metallic gold color which can change to dull brown when disturbed.


There are 29 different species!


They dig large networks of tunnels!

Grapevine Beetle

Although they feed on grapevine leaves, Grapevine beetles hardly cause serious damage to the plant. 

Grass Snake

Use acute hearing to hunt

Grass Spider

Their fangs aren't big enough to penetrate human skin.


There are 11,000 known species!

Grasshopper Mouse

The grasshopper mice attack predators using the poison of their venom.

Gray Catbird

Their songs have cat-like qualities and can mimic other birds and animals, like tree frogs.

Gray Fox

The gray fox has retractable claws and a rotating wrist that allow it to climb trees with some proficiency

Gray Tree Frog

This frog can "freeze" itself by making glycerol that becomes glucose, which acts like antifreeze and stops its heartbeat and breathing!

Great Crested Flycatcher

This species makes use of some truly unusual nesting material, including snakeskin and garbage

Green Frog

Green frogs will eat any animal that they can fit in their mouth.

Green June Beetle

• Green June beetles will appear to mate in early summer, typically in May or June. This is why they are also known as May beetles. Therefore, it is very uncommon to see these beetles any other time.

Green Snake

There are two types of green snakes: smooth green snakes and rough green snakes

Grizzly Bear

Less than 10% make it into adulthood

Groundhog Tick

Groundhog ticks carry the Powassan virus which can cause brain-swelling.

Groundhog (Woodchuck)

They whistle to each other to warn of approaching danger!

Gypsy Moth

One of the most invasive species in the world

Hairy Woodpecker

They are natural pest controls


The position of the Hallucigenia's head puzzled scientists for several years

Hammond’s flycatcher

“Hammond’s flycatcher has a call known as a sharp peek!”


Able to run as quickly backwards as forwards!

Harbor Porpoise

Surprisingly, not a dolphin!


Can reach speeds of over 50 mph!

Hawk Moth Caterpillar

Many hawk moth caterpillars eat toxins from plants, but don’t sequester them the way milkweed butterflies do. Most toxins are excreted.


Inhabits wetlands around the world!

Herring Gull

They are loud, spirited birds with raucous cries that sound like bursts of laughter.

Highland Cattle

Natively found in the Scottish Highlands!

Hobo Spider

The Hobo Spider travels city to city like an actual Hobo and is often found near railroad tracks!

Hognose snake

Prima Donnas of the Snake World

Honey Bee

There are only 8 recognized species!

Hooded Seal

Hooded seal pups are called bluebacks because the color of the fur on their back is blue-gray. This pretty color made people want to make fur coats out of them and made them a target for hunters.


Has evolved over 50 million years!


Horseflies have been seen performing Immelmann turns, much like fighter jets.

Horseshoe Crab

Changed little in over 500 million years!

House wren

The wren’s epithet, aedon, comes from a Greek queen who accidentally killed her only son. She was actually aiming for her nephew, and Zeus took pity on her and turned her into a nightingale.


The fly has no teeth


Thought to have orignated 200,000 years ago!


Can jump over 6 feet straight up from a standstill

Imperial Moth

Since the imperial moth doesn’t eat, it does die shortly after it lays its eggs. Its lifespan is only about one week.


There are an estimated 30 million species!

Io Moth

The larvae of the Io Moth has a poisonous and painful sting.

Jack Crevalle

One of the biggest species in the Caranx genus

Japanese Beetle

Can clear an entire fruit tree in 15 minutes in a swarm

Jonah Crab

It has delicious meat with an affordable price

Kangaroo Rat

Merriam’s kangaroo rats literally never have to drink water

Kermode Bear (Spirit Bear)

The cubs are usually weaned after 6 to 8 months; however, they will remain with their mothers through their second winter until they reach 17 months old.


The killdeer feigns injury to draw a predator away from its nest.

Kinder Goat

Best jumper of all goats

King Eider

The species name, spectabilis, is Latin for “showy” or “remarkable,” referencing the attractiveness of the adult male’s plumage.


Inhabits wetlands and woodlands worldwide!

Kokanee Salmon

A non-anadromous type of sockeye salmon

Labrador Retriever

Well-balanced, friendly and versatile!


A Labraheeler is a good choice for a watchdog as it do whatever it can to keep its family safe!


There are more than 5,000 species worldwide!

Landseer Newfoundland

While Landseer's are very gentle and calm, they can sense a dangerous situation and will protect their loved ones.

Largemouth Bass

Georgia, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida all claim the largemouth bass as the state fish or state freshwater fish.

Least Flycatcher

They can travel up to 72 miles in a single day.


Has 10 pairs of eyes!

Leghorn Chicken

Leghorn chickens, one of the most popular industrial breeds, lay up to 320 eggs per year!


Does not hibernate during the bitter Arctic winter!

Leopard Frog

They can jump up to three feet

Lesser Scaup

Young lesser scaups learn to dive as soon as their down dries.

Little Brown Bat

The little brown bat uses echolocation to quickly navigate around its environment


There are around 5,000 different species!

Loggerhead Shrike

Its nickname is the butcherbird!

Lone Star Tick

Only females have the ‘lone star’ marking

Long-Eared Owl

Ear tufts make it look bigger!


Live in dens in rocks and under ledges!

MacGillivray’s Warbler

The complicated story of how MacGillivray’s Warblers got their name involves three ornithologists, a physician and a compromise.


Machaeroides had large saber-teeth, much like the saber-toothed tiger.

Mackenzie Valley Wolf

Will travel up to 70 miles in a single day.


Will only live in wet areas

Magnolia Warbler

They line their nests with fungi strands


Maiasaura dinosaurs can grow to 31 feet long.


With an appropriate tail wind, the mallard can travel hundreds of miles a day

Marans Chicken

Marans chickens produce some of the darkest, chocolate-brown eggs in the world!

Marble Fox

The marble fox is not a naturally occurring variant; it was created through artificial selection.


A marmot spends 80% of its life below ground

May Beetle

May Beetles are also known as June Bugs Because they’re more active during the month of June


They have a symbiotic relationship with ants.


They line their nests with their feathers


Some species have a poisonous bite!


Mockingbirds are incredible mimics that can learn hundreds of songs!


Primarily hunts and feeds on Earthworms!

Mole Cricket

Adult Mole crickets may fly as far as 5 miles during mating season and are active most of the year.

Monarch Butterfly

During migration, Monarch Butterflies may travel 250 or more miles each day.


Has characteristics of two or more breeds!


Renews it's enormous antlers every year!


Only the female mosquito actually sucks blood


There are 250,000 different species!

Mountain Beaver

The beaver that is not a beaver

Mountain Bluebird

Depending on the time of the year, the mountain bird can live as far north as Alaska.

Mountain Lion

Has no real natural predators!

Mourning Dove

It is almost always the male who makes the famous sad sound, which is a wooing call

Mourning Warbler

The Mourning Warbler was named for its gray head, which resembles a mourning veil!


Found on every continent on Earth!


Mudpuppies never leave their larval stage. This is called neoteny.


The offspring of a horse and donkey parents!

Mule Deer

Mule deer can run up to 45 miles per hour.


Muskox have several physical characteristics that allow them to survive in the Arctic climate.


The muskrat can stay underwater up to 17 minutes at a time


Introduced by Vikings more than 1,000 years ago!

Night Heron

When they feel threatened juvenile night herons vomit their stomach contents.

No See Ums

There are more than 5,000 species.

North American Black Bear

Short claws make them good tree climbers!

Northern Alligator Lizard

Unlike other lizards, these give livebirth to their young

Northern Cardinal

Males are a bright red color, also called "cardinal red"

Northern Flicker

Northern Flickers often make their homes in dead trees.

Northern Harrier

They can reach speeds of 25 Mph but prefer to soar low and slow.

Northern Parula

They live in coffee and citrus plantations during the winter

Northern Pintail

Northern pintails migrate at night with speeds reaching 48 miles per hour!

Northern Water Snake

Northern watersnakes’ teeth help them nab fish as they swim by.

Nut Weevil

Bore holes in tree nuts and lay their eggs inside


An invasive species, one female nutria can birth up to 200 babies in just a few years of living!

Ocean Perch

As a scorpionfish, the ocean perch has spines along its back!


Opabinia had five stalked eyes on its head.


Thought to be immune to certain snake venom!

Oranda Goldfish

Oranda goldfish are one of the most popular fancy goldfish breeds

Orange-Crowned Warbler

Often mistaken for the Tennessee Warblers, which are equally dull.

Orb Weaver

Females are about four times the size of males

Oregon Spotted Frog

Oregon spotted frogs are the most endangered frogs in Canada!


Ornithomimus translates from Greek to mean “bird mimic.”


They reuse nesting sites for 70 years!


There are 13 different species worldwide


The ovenbird is named for its unusual nest, which is shaped like an oven!


The owl can rotate its head some 270 degrees

Painted Turtle

Male painted turtles have longer nails.


Prefers to hunt at night than during the day!


The Parasaurolophus ran on its hindlegs at speeds of up to 30mph!

Pennsylvania Wood Cockroach

Seeks out sources of light

Peppered Moth

Teachers in schools often use the evolution of the peppered moth as a good example of Darwin’s theory of natural selection.

Perch Fish

Some of the most delicious gamefish in the world

Peregrine Falcon

Fastest animal on Earth


Females lay between 8 and 12 eggs per clutch!

Piebald Dachshund

Hotdogs were originally called "Dachshund sausages" because they resembled the dachshund's wiener-like body!


They can find their way back to their nests from up to 1300 miles away.


Found in mountainous regions and rocky areas

Pileated Woodpecker

Pairs establish territories and remain all year

Pine Marten

A pine marten can jump from tree to tree similar to a squirrel.

Pine Siskin

When foraging, pine siskins hang upside down to pick through the leaves and bark, collecting seeds from coniferous trees.

Pink Salmon

The smallest of the North American salmon

Pit Viper

Pit vipers's fangs fold up into their mouths when they don't need them.

Plains Hognose Snake

The plains hognose snake gets its name from the upturned end of its snout.

Polar Bear

Could be extinct within the next 30 years!

Polyphemus Moth

The Polyphemus moth doesn’t and can't eat, except when it's a caterpillar!


There are 30 different species worldwide!

Prairie Chicken

They inflate their orange neck patches during their mating displays

Prairie Rattlesnake

The striking distance of a prairie rattlesnake is 2/3rds the length of its body.


Pterodactyl is not technically a dinosaur. Although they lived during the same time as dinosaurs, they are classified as winged reptiles.


Can remain in the water for up to 2 minutes!


Has longer back legs than front legs!

Purple Finch

The intensity of the plumage can change based on what the bird eats

Quahog Clam

Their hinged shell protects their soft body


Inhabits woodland and forest areas worldwide!

Queen Snake

Queen snakes have armor-like scales on the top of their head


Known to wash their food before eating it!

Racer Snake

The racer snake can speed away at up to 3.5 miles per hour

Rainbow Grasshopper (Dactylotum bicolor)

They have strikingly bright colors


Omnivores that eat anything!

Rat Snakes

Rat snakes are constrictors from the Colubridae family of snakes.


Rattlesnakes may have evolved their rattle to warn bison away from them.

Red Aphids

Aphids are called ant cows because ants herd and "milk" them to secrete a substance called honeydew!

Red-Eared Slider

Sliders spend lots of time basking in the sun. As cold-blooded animals, they need the sun to heat up.

Red Finch

Red finches can form flocks of over 100 birds.

Red-Shouldered Hawk

Red-Shouldered Hawks reuse the same nesting area each year.

Red Squirrel

The red squirrel has one of the most impressive memories in the entire animal kingdom

Red-winged blackbird

The male red-winged blackbird can sing to attract mates


Also known as the Caribou

Ribbon Snake

Ribbon snakes love water, but are excellent climbers too.

Ring-billed Gull

The ring-billed gull feeds on vast quantities of human waste and garbage.

River Otter

The river otter can hold its breath for up to 8 minutes

River Turtle

Inhabits freshwater habitats around the world!


There are more than 45 species in Australia alone!

Rock Bass

Rock bass can change their color slightly to camouflage.


The capybara, the world’s largest rodent, likes to be in and around bodies of water. Because of this, the Catholic Church in South America decided that it was a fish, and people were allowed to eat it during Lent and First Fridays.


Will mate with the entire flock!

Rose-Breasted Grosbeak

This bird is also called cut-throat because the male looks like his throat has been cut and has bled over his breast.

Rough-Legged Hawk (Rough-Legged Buzzard)

Its scientific name, lagopus, is Ancient Greek for “hare” and “foot,” referring to its feathered feet and toes.

Ruby-Throated Hummingbird

Ruby-throated hummingbirds can beat their wings more than 50 times per second.

Ruddy Duck

Ruddy duck breeding males have bright blue bills!

Rufous Hummingbird

The males have a glowing iridescent orange patch on their chests.

Saber-Toothed Tiger

Canines up to 7 inches long!

Sable Ferret

Ferrets were used during the Revolutionary War to keep down the rat population.


There are more than 700 different species!


Returns upstream every year to spawn

Sand Crab

The sand crab burrows beneath the sand with its tail


Legs also function as gills

Savannah Sparrow

The Savannah sparrow gets its name because one of the first of this type of bird was found in the city of Savannah, Georgia.

Scissor-tailed Flycatcher

Scissor-tailed flycatchers are known for their dramatically long tails!


There are around 2,000 known species!


Its skull bones can compress so the fish can fit in narrow spaces

Sea Bass

Sea bass can grow up to 880 pounds in weight!

Sea Eagle

The sea eagle tends to mate for life with a single partner


Some gulls are capable of using tools

Sharp-Shinned Hawk

In captivity, sharp-shinned hawks can live up to 13 years. However, in the wild, this number is significantly reduced to 3 years!

Sharp-Tailed Snake

This snake uses its sharp tail to steady itself when capturing prey.


Around 35 million in the English countryside!

Short-Eared Owl

The short-eared owl is one of the most widespread owl species in the world, covering five continents.


The spinal column of the shrew Scutisorex somereni is so strong and reinforced that it can support the weight of an adult human.


There are 2,000 different species worldwide!

Siberian Retriever

Many husky Labs have one blue eye and one brown eye.

Skink Lizard

Some skinks lay eggs in some habitats while giving birth to skinklets in other habitats.


Also known as the Polecat!


They glide around on one foot, which is aided by the slime they produce

Smallmouth Bass

A fierce fighter!

Smokybrown Cockroach

Has up to 45 eggs per egg case


There are nearly 1,000 different species!


There are around 4,000 known species worldwide

Snapping Turtle

Only found in North America!


Snorkies are known for their funny, attention-getting antics.

Snow Goose

The snow goose has a dark line along their beaks known as a ‘grinning patch’!

Snowberry Clearwing Moth

They are pollinators, just like bees.

Snowy Owl

One of the largest owl species in the world!

Sockeye Salmon

Called "red salmon" because their skin turns bright red to dirty red during spawning season

Song Sparrow

Pumps its tail when it flies!

Spadefoot Toad

They spend most of their time underground!


There are 140 different species!


Many people believe that because the Sphynx doesn't have a lot of fur, they are easily maintained. However, their upkeep is demanding!

Spider Wasp

They prey on spiders to feed their larvae or they parasitize other spider wasps.

Spongy Moth

In March of 2022, the Entomological Society of America changed the name of this insect from the European gypsy moth to the spongy moth out of respect for the Romani community, which considers the word "gypsy" to be offensive.

Spotted Skunk

Spotted skunks are known for their acrobatic abilities. They perform handstands before spraying their enemies.


Small rodents found in woodlands worldwide!

Stag Beetle

The stag beetle consumes rotting and decaying wood when it is in the larva stage.

Star-nosed mole

The star-nosed mole has the ability to sense both electrical fields and ground vibrations

Steelhead Salmon

Steelhead live in freshwater rivers and streams for 1 to 2 years before migrating into the ocean

Stick Insect

There are more than 3,000 different species!


Average adults weigh about 200 grams!

Striped Bass

Pilgrims counted striped bass as an essential part of their diet from the time they arrived in North America.

Summer Tanager

They remove bee stingers by rubbing them against a tree

Swainson’s Hawk

Their wings form a “V” shape when flying.


Populations have been affected by pollution!

Swedish Elkhound

Swedish Elkhounds existed in prehistoric times!

Tarantula Hawk

Tarantula hawks are excellent pollinators, especially for milkweed.

Ten-Lined June Beetle

These beetles can take up to two years to complete one generation. In fact, larvae can develop in soil for up to 4 years!


Some theropods had feathers and may have been ancestors of modern birds.


The American robin is called the robin because its red breast reminded European settlers of the robin back in the old country.


They inject hosts with a chemical that stops them from feeling the pain of the bite

Tiger Beetle

The adult tiger beetle is one of the fastest land insects in the world

Tiger Moth

The bright colors of this moth are a signal to predators that it has a terrible taste.

Tiger Muskellunge (Muskie)

Massive carnivorous hybrid fish

Tiger Trout

As tiger trout are sterile, they cannot produce offspring. However, they do have relatively long lifespans and can live up to 10 years in captivity.


Seen as an evolutionary link between fish and tetrapods

Tomato Hornworm

The tomato hornworm is a ferocious pest that can eat all parts of a plant, including the fruits.


The Torkie is alert and very vocal so it makes a great watchdog.


Can live until they are more than 150 years old!

Tree Cricket

They make music with their wings

Tree Frog

Found in warmer jungles and forests!

Tree swallow

The tree swallow can make more than a dozen distinct vocalizations


Troodon formosus means "wounding tooth" in Greek, a name that describes its serrated teeth.

Tundra Swan

“The tundra swan is entirely white except for a yellow marking at the base of their bill!”


Some species of aquatic turtles can get up to 70 percent of their oxygen through their butt.


Tusoteuthis was one of the largest cephalopods ever


Tylosaurus was a marine reptile that is closely related to modern-day snakes and monitor lizards.

Upland Sandpiper

They make jerky movements as they walk through the grass, searching for food.

Valley Bulldog

These dogs cannot swim well because of their stocky build and short legs.


The veery is named for its sharp "veer" call.


Vinegaroons can spray 19 times before the glands are depleted


There are 30 different species worldwide!

Walleye Fish

Has great night vision


Warblers are so called because of the trills of their song.


There are around 75,000 recognised species!

Wax Moth

The Wax Moth larvae are more dangerous than the adult.


The smallest carnivorous mammal in the world!

Welsh Black Cattle

Welsh Black Cattle were once used as currency in Wales and referred to as “black gold”.

Western Blacklegged Tick

Western blacklegged ticks are only found in the west coast of the United States

Western Hognose Snake

Primarily solitary, these snakes only communicate with one another during breeding season.

Western Kingbird

Western kingbirds have hidden red crown feathers that they can raise when threatened!

Western Rattlesnake (Northern Pacific Rattlesnake)

Western rattlesnakes are shy and try to avoid people whenever possible.

Western Tanager

They migrate farther north than any other tanager.

White Bass

Silvery white fish popular with anglers

White-Crowned Sparrow

Males learn distinct songs from the community they grew up in and continue to sing in the same dialect as adults.

White Ferret / Albino Ferrets

There are two different types of white ferrets!

White Sturgeon 

They don't have any teeth!

White-tail deer

White-tail deer are good swimmers

Whitetail Deer

Although deer are herbivores, they will sometimes eat mice and birds when they can catch them.

Whooping Crane

This species is named after the loud whooping sound it makes

Willow Flycatcher

These birds live in the understory and are named for their propensity for flitting between willows and shrubs.

Winter Moth

Only the males fly and the females walk.


Thought to date back more than 300,000 years!

Wolf Spider

Carnivorous arachnid that hunts its prey.


Releases a strong smelling musk in defence!

Wood Bison

The reintroduction of wood bison into Alaska is considered one of the world’s best conservation success stories.

Wood Duck

Adult male wood ducks sport a striking red eye and bill year-round!

Wood Frog

The wood frog lives the furthest north of any other North American amphibian including in the Arctic Circle.

Wood Tick

Almost always found above 4,000 feet in elevation

Wood Turtle

Temperature determines the sex of turtle eggs


This animal can roll up into a ball

Woodlouse Spider

Unlike most spiders, woodlouse spiders don’t build a web.


There are 200 different species!


Pack rats love shiny objects and will steal your jewelry.


Doesn’t have eyes.

Writing Spider

males pluck webs like strings on a guitar

Wyandotte Chicken

The Wyandotte chicken was the first dual-purpose American chicken bred for both meat and eggs!

Xeme (Sabine’s Gull)

They follow after seals and whales to eat their scraps.


The Xenoceratops is the oldest known horned dinosaur ever discovered in Canada.

Yellow Bellied Sapsucker

The males are responsible for choosing the nesting tree most of the time. Luckily, cavity nests are often reused for multiple breeding seasons (up to 7 years.)

Yellow Bullhead Catfish

Bottom dwelling scavenger fish

Yellow Perch

Female Yellow Perch grom larger than the males.


They forage near the ground, searching leaves for insects

Yokohama Chicken

Yokohama chickens have snow white feathers with tails reaching up to 4 feet in length.


These dogs are very intelligent and are great with children.

Zebra Mussels

A female zebra mussel can deposit 30,000 to 1,000,000 eggs each year!

Canadian Animals List

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About the Author

Growing up in rural New England on a small scale farm gave me a lifelong passion for animals. I love learning about new wild animal species, habitats, animal evolutions, dogs, cats, and more. I've always been surrounded by pets and believe the best dog and best cat products are important to keeping our animals happy and healthy. It's my mission to help you learn more about wild animals, and how to care for your pets better with carefully reviewed products.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions) 

What is the longest river system in Canada?

The longest river system in Canada is the Mackenzie River, which measures 2,635 miles. When just measuring river stems, the largest river that begins in Canada is the Yukon River.